Classification of vegetable crops

Classification of vegetable crops

Fruit, in which the fruit is the food organ. This group includes plants in which the fruits are consumed in an unripe form - cucumber, zucchini, squash, and also in a state of biological maturity - tomato, watermelon, melon, pumpkin.

Bulbousforming bulbs from densely folded juicy leaves and scales - onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, perennial onions.

Tuberousforming a tuber - potatoes.

Escaping, in which young non-lignified shoots are used for food - asparagus, cauliflower.

Leafy - young shoots and leaves are used for food - white cabbage, Savoy, Brussels sprouts, dill, tarragon, chicory salad, peppermint, savory, basil, marjoram, etc.

Root vegetables - a root vegetable is used for food - turnip, radish, radish, rutabaga, carrot, parsley, parsnip, celery, beetroot, scorzonera, katran, etc.

Leafy - leaves are used for food - sorrel, rhubarb, spinach.

Stalk - a short overgrown stem - kohlrabi - is used for food.

Rhizome - horseradish.

Inflorescenceforming a vegetable in the form of an inflorescence - an artichoke.

Vegetable classification - garden and vegetable garden

Irrigation of vegetable crops

Irrigation is an integral part of the technology for growing vegetable crops. This is explained by the high demand for moisture in most types of vegetables (Table C-55). So, seedling tomatoes consume 50-60 liters of water from 1 m2 to form an average crop. Sweet pepper, eggplant, cabbage require it even more - 70-80 l / m2. In our zone, these crops, as well as cucumbers, are almost impossible to grow without irrigation. This group also includes radishes, radishes, onions, lettuce, spinach and celery.
Other crops (seedless tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, table beets, etc.) can be grown without irrigation, but high and, most importantly, stable yields cannot be guaranteed, especially in dry years.
Thus, it is quite clear that if you are applying for large yields of vegetables, you will have to organize irrigation on your site.

There are several ways to provide a suburban area with irrigation water:
Stationary (capital) irrigation system, consisting of main water pipelines (open or closed). It is usually built common for the entire gardening partnership (cooperative). Irrigation water in this case, as a rule, is supplied centrally from one source (lake, pond, river, artesian well, etc.).
Individual projects of such systems are not excluded, but they are hardly realistic due to their high cost.

Regular monitoring of the quality of water used for irrigation is a very serious problem. It is best to submit a sample of water (2 bottles of 0.5 l each) from a source planned for irrigation for analysis to specialized laboratories of the agrochemical service or scientific institutions. The fact is that in Moldova (as well as in many southern regions) the irrigation properties of water (especially in open water bodies) are rather low, due to the high content of mineral salts in them. In all cases, when their content exceeds 1.5 g per 1 liter, such water can be used for irrigation only to a limited extent (rarely), or in small doses ("maintenance" irrigation). It is best to dilute it with other water with a lower salt content. Irrigation water with a salt content of more than 2g per 1 liter, without preliminary dilution, cannot be used for irrigation at all. Otherwise, you risk salting the soil and significantly reduce the yield for many years to come. Many Fasendiros have already seen this danger with their own eyes. Sometimes, after watering, a light gray border ("necklace") appears on the border between wet and dry soil. This is the deposition of salts from the irrigation water of low quality.
It should be warned that after checking the irrigation water for the first time and having received good results in terms of quality, it is early to calm down - the quality of the water can fluctuate greatly over time. Water in open reservoirs contains the least amount of mineral salts in the early spring period, as well as after heavy rainfall. The greatest amount of salts is found in water in summer and early autumn, especially in years with high temperatures and severe drought.
The strongest seasonal fluctuations in salt concentration are observed in ponds and lakes (especially small ones), less in wells and rivers, and the smallest fluctuations in artesian wells. Therefore, it is necessary to do several analyzes per season in order to know also the level of fluctuations in the salt content in the irrigation water source. Especially dangerous is the presence of sodium salts in the water for irrigation - this will lead in 2-3 years to the need for regular use of gypsum plastering and other expensive methods of radical improvement of irrigated lands.

Depending on the purpose of irrigation, the technological equipment of the "hacienda", the relief of the site and other factors, various watering methods:
gravity, sprinkling, aerosol, subsoil, drip irrigation.

Irrigation regime and methods depend on the biological properties of plants (table. С-58 - С-59).
So, crops with a deep-lying powerful root system (watermelon, horseradish, beets, pumpkin, carrots, potatoes) require more rare watering with a higher rate of irrigation, which wet the soil to a greater depth. For them, furrow, estuary or subsoil irrigation methods are better suited.

You can find the tables attached to this section in the book "Whether in the garden or in the garden":
Classification of vegetable crops according to their need for irrigation. Table C-55
Total water consumption of vegetable crops for crop formation. S-56
The main methods of irrigation. Table C-57
Approximate amount of watering for vegetable crops. Table C-58
Characteristics of water consumption of vegetable crops (in cubic meters / ha). Table C-59
And also in the book there are many useful tips on this topic in the author's section "Knots for Memory"

Tips and additional information

The seeds of the hybrids are marked with the F1 mark on the package. The mark means the generation of plants that have taken the best qualities from their “ancestors”. Self-pollinated hybrids, give a stable harvest, their fruits are of the same size, resistant to most pests and diseases. However, F1 species are more expensive in price, require fertile soil, do not withstand extreme conditions, and are unsuitable for seed production.

For gardeners who collect and harvest seeds on their own, crops of ordinary varieties are suitable. Plants are resistant to temperature extremes, unpretentious and retain their properties for generations. Seeds are demanding for pollination, give an unstable crop, and are susceptible to disease.

The ultimate use of the grown product determines the choice of vegetable seeds. Different cultures are used for conservation, drying, storage or fresh consumption. For example, tomatoes with large fruits are not suitable for pickling, but are suitable for salads.

You can also buy vegetable seeds with delivery from a warehouse across the Russian Federation and the CIS (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Minsk, Astana, etc.). If you have any questions, call 8-800-234-1000 and get a free consultation from our specialists.

Gardener's Basics: Vegetable Crop Rotation and Plant Compatibility

Why should you know the systematization of vegetables in such detail? All plants consume nutrients from the soil and release organic matter into it, but these processes are not the same in certain species.

There are also a large number of pests and diseases that affect representatives of botanical families in different ways. Knowing these patterns, it is possible to organize crop rotation of crops in such a way that crops from one family return to their original place no earlier than after 3-5 years.

During this time, the soil will accumulate the food they need, and the organics that are dangerous for them will have time to decompose. Pests will simply not be able to find their "victim" in such a cycle. How to calculate the compatibility of plants when planting in a vegetable garden?

Nutrient intake
The annual depletion of the soil by the same plants leads to a decrease in their yield. Therefore, vegetables from the same botanical family cannot be grown for several years in the same garden. By alternating crops, we allow the land to restore its original state, and by applying fertilizers - and increase it.

It should also be borne in mind that the consumption of nutrients by plants is at different depths, depending on the location of the root system. That is, by planting crops with different root structures next to it, we, without disturbing the balance, will be able to get twice as many fruits from one garden bed.

An approximate scheme of vegetable crop rotation
When calculating the compatibility of plants in the garden, it should be understood that cabbage and leeks deplete the soil the most. They are planted in the first year on a bed well fertilized in the fall. They are followed by pumpkin seeds in terms of consumption. Solanaceous and various onions are not so demanding on soil fertility. They can be planted after zucchini and cucumbers. Root crops close this row, since they are able to get food from a greater depth, without losing in yield.

All legumes, on the other hand, enrich the soil with nutrients. They are planted at the end of the four-year cycle, giving the land a rest in the fifth year of the existence of the same bed. Instead of legumes, other plants, such as green manure, can be sown to increase soil fertility.

Isolation of organic matter
In addition to consumption, during the growing season, plant roots release various organic substances into the soil, such as enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, hormones and colins. It is the accumulation of colins in the soil that has a depressing effect on the growth of plants of the same species. As a result, the quality of the crop decreases every year.

Vegetables from the haze family (chard, beets, spinach) and legumes (peas, beans, beans) react most sharply to their own secretions. They can be sown in the old place no earlier than after 4 years.

Confusing pests
Most often, cultures of the same family are affected by common diseases, and pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases can accumulate in the soil year after year. The annual rotation of the cultivated species reduces the number of pathogens on the site.

The same thing happens with various leaf-sucking and leaf-gnawing insects. The shift of vegetable crops to the side, even by one bed, already sharply reduces their number.

In addition, the plants themselves can help each other by scaring away insects with their enzymes. Onions and carrots are a textbook example of this collaboration. Other options can be found in specialized literature, where the plant compatibility table is given.

Protective plants
Ornamental plants can also act as protectors. In some way, marigolds and marigolds (calendula) can be considered universal. With their tart aroma, they are able to rid the garden of most pests.

It should also be borne in mind that some flowers are annuals and are planted directly in the beds between vegetables. And perennials - such as chamomile, tansy, wormwood and many others - must be placed around the perimeter of the garden.

Spicy-aromatic herbs (mint, lemon balm, thyme, sage, etc.) can also act as protectors. They will also attract pollinators to the garden.

Tip: Avoid using plants with flying seeds for these purposes, so that their self-seeding does not spread throughout the site. And such an aggressor as mint should be limited in the underground part by placing it in a bucket or in a dug-in container.

Crop rotation in action
How to practically apply crop rotation on your site? On the plan of the garden, indicate the locations and sizes of the beds. It is most convenient to choose a four-year crop rotation cycle, and for this the number of beds should be a multiple of four. In the finished plan, it should be noted the vegetable plantings of the last year, indicating the botanical families. Based on the resulting list, distribute the plantings of this year, taking into account the compatibility of plants in the garden (the table is at the link above). Plant less demanding vegetables in the same beds where the more demanding ones were grown last year.

Include in the scheme not only basic vegetables, but also helper plants, and also take into account combined plantings. And don't forget to save the diagram for future reference! Next year, you will also move all crops across it.

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Botanical classification of vegetables

Botanical classification is the division of vegetable crops according to the peculiarities of their morphological structure. There are mono- and dicotyledonous classes of vegetable crops.

Monocotyledonous vegetable classes:

  • asparagus - asparagus
  • bulbous - onion, turnip, leek, chives and multi-tiered onions, garlic
  • cereals (bluegrass) - sweet corn.

Dicotyledonous vegetable classes:

  • pumpkin - watermelons, cucumbers, melons, squash, zucchini, pumpkins
  • cabbage (cruciferous) - red and white cabbage, savoy and cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Beijing and kohlrabi, radish and radish, katran and horseradish
  • quinoa - spinach, chard and beetroot
  • celery (umbrella) - dill, carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery
  • nightshade - peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant
  • legumes - beans, peas, beans
  • buckwheat - rhubarb, sorrel
  • Asteraceae (Asteraceae) - chicory salad, lettuce, artichoke, tarragon.

When defining crops by growing methods and organs of consumption, this classification is inconvenient. Crops such as root crops (radish, radish) and cabbage belong to the same family - cabbage, but their cultivation method and organs of consumption are different. There are vegetables that belong to different families according to botanical taxonomy, the structure of the aboveground part, but they form the entire root crop. They also have the same agronomic cultivation activities.

Classification of vegetable groups

To make it convenient to implement and use vegetables, they are divided according to the peculiarities of the use of the productive organs into groups:

  • root vegetables (carrots, radishes, beets, celery, radishes, parsnips, parsley)
  • leafy (lettuce, collard greens, sorrel, spinach, celery, dill)
  • fruit (eggplants, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, sugar corn, melons, watermelons, peas, pumpkins, beans, beans)
  • stalk-bearing (kohlrabi cabbage)
  • the flower group includes plants where flowers, buds, inflorescences (artichoke, broccoli, cauliflower) are used for food
  • the spicy group includes vegetable crops in which vegetative organs are used as a seasoning for food (parsley, tarragon, dill)
  • cultivation of mushrooms (oyster mushrooms, champignons) also belongs to vegetable growing.

In the production of vegetables, the above classification is not convenient enough, since the group may include crops grown in different ways. Edelstein took into account the agrotechnical and biological characteristics and properties of the organs of productivity of crops and received the following groups:

  • cabbage: red and white cabbage, savoy and cauliflower, kohlrabi and Brussels sprouts
  • root vegetables: family of haze - beets; family of celery - celery, carrots, parsnips, parsley; cabbage family - radishes, radishes.
  • tuberous: potatoes
  • bulbous: bulb family - onion, garlic, chives, turnips, tiered onions and leeks
  • leafy: lettuce, spinach, dill
  • fruit: from the nightshade family - physalis, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkin eggplants - squash, cucumbers, melons, watermelons, zucchini, pumpkin legumes - beans, beans, bluegrass peas - sweet corn
  • perennial: asparagus family - asparagus buckwheat family - rhubarb, sorrel Aster family - tarragon cabbage family - katran, horseradish
  • mushrooms: oyster mushrooms, champignons.

Vegetables are divided by life expectancy into perennial, one- and biennial.

Annual crops complete their growing life cycle within one year. In biennials, in the first year of the growing season, productive organs are formed, and after wintering, buds germinate in the culture, a stem is formed, flowering and fruiting occurs. Such vegetables include: cabbage (except for Peking and cauliflower), beets, celery, parsley, leeks and onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips and others.

Different types of vegetables are grown and harvested differently

In perennial vegetable crops, in the first year, the development of the root system, rosette of leaves and budding occurs. The productive organs begin to form in the second or third year. From the second year, fruiting begins, which can last for many years. Perennial crops include sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish and others.

Fertilization of vegetable crops

Even the most fertile soil from time to time needs the introduction of additional nutrients necessary for the growth and development of plants. The lack of feeding inevitably leads to depletion of the soil, deterioration of its valuable properties and, as a result, to a drop in the yield of garden crops, even if the other stages of care were carried out in a timely manner and correctly.

The main chemical elements, without which plants cannot exist, are phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. In addition, in some cases it is necessary to add additional substances, for example, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, etc. If the analysis of a soil sample shows an acidic reaction, lime should be added as a stabilizing component.

All fertilizers are divided into organic and mineral fertilizers. As the name suggests, organic compounds are a mixture of dead plant residues as well as animal waste. The most popular fertilizers in this group are peat, compost, mullein, rotted straw. Currently, for ease of use, many organic formulations are sold in the form of concentrated mixtures, which must be diluted with water in the required proportion before use.

After applying organic fertilizers, humus begins to form in the soil, which not only has nutritive properties, but also improves the mechanical composition of the soil. The advantage of this group of dressings also lies in the fact that rotted organic matter contains all the chemical compounds necessary for the growth and development of plants.

Mineral fertilizers, unlike organic ones, are produced artificially.

One-component top dressing contains only one of the essential nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium), complex ones include not only the mentioned substances, but also additional biological stimulants, micro- and macroelements, stabilizers, etc.

Currently, there are many different complex mineral fertilizers that are very convenient to use: due to the high concentration of active components, it is enough to dissolve a small portion of crystals or granules in a bucket of water, and then just water the garden.

Bacterial fertilizers are a special type of fertilizing that is now widely used in household plots. Such mixtures contain various types of living soil bacteria, which facilitate the absorption of nutrients by plants, improve the chemical composition of the soil, and prevent the development of putrefactive and other pathological processes in the soil. The advantage of bacterial fertilizers is their safety - even if the recommended concentration of the applied mixture is accidentally exceeded, negative consequences are usually not observed.

Specialized fertilizers can be both mineral and organic (most often they belong to the category of complex fertilizers). Now in gardening shops there is a huge selection of dressings intended for certain types of garden plants - tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs, zucchini, etc. The balanced composition of nutritional mixtures is designed in accordance with the needs of each species. If the variety of crops grown on the site is small, it is advisable to use these particular mixtures.

Biological stimulants have been developed relatively recently. These are complex chemical compounds, the use of which as fertilizers makes it possible to achieve accelerated growth and development of plants, and to improve the productivity of garden crops. The use of biostimulants requires strict adherence to the recommended dosage, otherwise, instead of benefit, such fertilizer will bring irreparable harm.

The introduction of any fertilizer into the soil requires careful study of the instructions attached to the package.

It is unacceptable to exceed the specified concentration, to feed too often, or to use complex fertilizers when there is no particular need for their use.

"Overfed" plants quickly begin to hurt, the productivity of garden crops is sharply reduced (for example, instead of the formation of ovaries in tomatoes, the growth of the vegetative shoot can accelerate). You should also be careful when using active biostimulants.

The lack of certain nutrients in the soil can be determined by the appearance of the garden plants.

In most species, the leaves lose their natural color, flowers and young ovaries crumble. In addition, each crop reacts in its own way to the deficiency of micro- and macroelements in the soil. For example, in representatives of the nightshade family (tomatoes, eggplants, peppers), with a lack of nitrogenous compounds, the stems become thin and fragile, the root system rots and dies, the fruits are deformed and shrink, the leaves turn pale or become covered with purple stains. Lack of phosphorus causes curling of the leaves, sometimes red spots appear on the leaf blades. The lack of timely potassium feeding leads to a delay or uneven ripening of fruits, weakening of vegetative shoots, destructive changes in the root system.

In cucumbers, with a lack of nitrogen fertilizers, the growth of lashes slows down sharply, the leaves and stems acquire a yellowish tint. Potassium deficiency causes the appearance of spots on the leaves of a characteristic golden-bronze hue, followed by the death of the affected tissues.

Cabbage and other cruciferous plants, with a lack of nitrogen compounds in the soil, stop growing, the leaves of plants become brittle, dryish, and sometimes acquire an orange tint. Phosphorus deficiency results in reddish or purple streaks on older leaves, and potassium deficiency causes leaf margins to die off.

With a lack of nitrogen, potatoes lose the elasticity of stems and leaves, all parts of the vegetative shoot acquire a characteristic greenish-yellow color, leaf blades gradually die off. If there is not enough phosphorus in the soil, the leaves dry out at the edges, while curling upward.

Let us consider in detail the main organic and inorganic fertilizers, which are currently widely used for feeding garden crops.

Manure is considered to be one of the most valuable organic fertilizers. It has been used as an "improver" for the beneficial properties of the soil for a long time. It contains not only valuable humus, but also potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus compounds necessary for plants for full vegetation and ripening of fruits. Most often, cattle waste, as well as horse manure, are used as top dressing.

Currently, there are concentrated manure-based mixtures that are very easy to use and can save a lot of time and effort required to maintain a vegetable garden.

The introduction of natural manure into the soil should be carried out according to a certain scheme. The process of fertilization overheating occurs gradually, therefore, it is recommended to use completely decomposed organic residues in early spring, and fresh ones - in autumn, so that the soil is sufficiently fertilized by the growing season. If the ground is warm and loose, top dressing can be applied to the entire depth of the loosened layer, remembering to sprinkle it with soil.

Liquid slurry (slurry) is also used as a natural supplement for most varieties of garden crops. To increase the nutritional value, you can add a superphosphate solution and granules with microelements to it.

Guano (bird droppings), like manure, contains almost all the substances that plants need. Compared to manure, there is much more nitrogen in the manure, therefore, when it is introduced into the soil, care should be taken: abundant autumn feeding can lead to the fact that nitrate compounds will gradually pass into fruits. This is why guano is commonly added to soil after harvest. It is most convenient to use this top dressing in the form of a liquid talker, mixing droppings with water.

Peat contains few nutrients and is mainly used to improve and stabilize the mechanical composition of the soil, increase fertility, and increase the humus content in the ground. Since peat is colored in dark shades, it heats up very quickly in the sun and helps to establish the optimum temperature for plant roots in deep soil layers. Like manure, peat decomposes very slowly, gradually. The acidic reaction of organic residues prevents soil laking.

Fresh peat before being added as a top dressing must be kept in the fresh air, periodically turning it over, and then add a little lime to it to reduce acidity, and mix with compost or leaf humus. In its pure form, this fertilizer can be used for growing seedlings from seeds.

To improve the fertility of sandy soils with a light mechanical structure, it is recommended to use silt from natural reservoirs. This substance contains many nitrogenous, phosphorus and potassium chemical compounds. Before entering the soil, the sludge should be "ventilated" in the fresh air, otherwise it may acidify.

Leafy humus (or leafy soil) is a good substitute for manure if the latter cannot be purchased for some reason. Humus is harvested in the autumn season. After raking the fallen leaves into a heap, the latter should be evenly sprinkled with a layer of soil and left to perekrevat until spring. After thawing, the leaves are mixed and covered with roofing material or opaque dark polyethylene. Ready humus is a loose brown or almost black substance.

Sod land is used mainly for growing seedlings as one of the main components of the soil mixture. It is harvested in natural meadows. With a sharp knife or a cutter, they carefully separate even layers of sod about 10 cm thick, then stack them into a pile, sprinkling the layers with manure or leaf humus. It is best to harvest the turf during the summer. Then in the fall, you can carefully mix the layers of sod, and by the spring the valuable fertilizer will be completely ready for use.

Wood sawdust has no nutritional value and is mainly used to improve the mechanical composition of the soil, increase the water holding capacity of the soil and promote aeration of plant roots. Only rotted sawdust is suitable for introduction into the soil, which should be harvested at the beginning of spring: mixed with fallen leaves or leaf humus, form a neat pile and slightly moisten it with water. During the growing season, future feeding must be mixed several times with a shovel, adding complex mineral fertilizers with trace elements, as well as chalk or lime to reduce acidity.

Compost is one of the most popular garden fertilizers. It has been used in home gardens for decades. You can prepare compost from various organic residues - guano, manure, fallen leaves, dead parts of herbaceous plants (except for weeds), etc. To prepare top dressing, you should clear a small area in the corner of the garden, lay on it a layer of fallen leaves or peat about 15 cm, and then form a rounded pile of organic matter on top. To speed up the process of overheating, the waste of the vital activity of organisms can be alternated with peat or sod land. Mix the compost heap and water it with warm water about once a week. If the garden is well lit, the future compost should be covered from direct sunlight with an awning. Next year, the fertilizer will be fully prepared for application to the dug soil.

Wood ash differs from other natural fertilizers in its high content of potassium compounds. In addition, it contains phosphorus, manganese, boron, lime and some trace elements useful for plants. The most nutritious is the ash left over after burning young tree branches, as well as peat ash. Since the nutritional value of wood ash is relatively low, this dressing is used mainly to lower the acidity of the soil.

Green fertilizers (siderates) are now becoming more and more popular. This top dressing represents certain types of plants, which, after entering the soil, gradually enrich it not only with rotted organic matter, but also with various microelements. Most often, representatives of the legume family (peas, seradella, mouse peas, broad beans, alfalfa) are used as green manures, since it is their shoots that contain the greatest amount of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. The introduction of green fertilizers improves the chemical and mechanical composition of the soil, stabilizes its structure.

Often, green manure plants are grown as a catch crop if the soil is noticeably depleted after prolonged use. You can also sow legumes after harvesting early root crops or vegetables, in the vacated areas of the garden. There is also a winter feeding method: green manure seeds are dropped into the ground in the fall, and in the spring they wait until the flowering period ends and after that they plow the garden along with the green mass of plants. Then you can start planting vegetable seedlings. The advantage of this feeding method is that it is impossible to overdose the natural fertilizer, it is easily absorbed by the root system of garden crops and ensures the full development of the vegetative shoot and ovaries.

In order for green fertilization to be as effective as possible, green manure plants are recommended to be planted in several rows with an interval of about 50 cm and a distance between individual specimens of at least 15 cm. It is not necessary to feed them, it is enough just to ensure regular watering, weeding and loosening of the soil.

To get a full-fledged bountiful harvest, it is advisable to combine organic fertilizers with artificial (mineral) fertilizers in the process of plant feeding. In most humus mixtures, substances useful for garden crops are contained in a slightly soluble form, which makes it difficult to assimilate them from the soil by the root system. Mineral additives must be used in strict accordance with the instructions attached to them - violation of the basic rules of feeding can lead to diseases and death of green spaces.

Liquid fertilizers are applied immediately after watering, otherwise concentrated mixtures can cause burns to young roots. Nutrient solutions should not get on the leaves and stems (except when the packaging of the selected composition states: "Recommended for foliar feeding"). Slowly dissolving granules should usually be scattered over the surface of the ground or slightly dug in. Approximately 8-10 weeks before the expected harvest of vegetables, it is necessary to cancel all dressings containing nitrate compounds.

Nitrogen fertilizers are used to accelerate the growth of all parts of the vegetative shoot of garden plants. There are ammonium-nitrate, amide, nitrate and ammonium forms of such dressings. Nitrate additives (for example, saltpeter) consist predominantly of nitric acid salts. They practically do not linger in the ground, they are quickly washed out by running water during irrigation. It should be remembered that nitrogen nutrient mixtures increase the alkaline reaction of the soil. The use of this type of fertilizer requires strict adherence to the attached instructions: nitrates have the ability to accumulate in fruits, which often leads to food poisoning. It is advisable to carry out nitrogen fertilization in early spring, before sowing seeds or planting prepared seedlings. Nitrates have a beneficial effect on crops with a short growing season (lettuce and head lettuce, radish, early maturing cabbage).

Ammonium fertilizers are rich in free ammonium ions. They are usually brought in in the fall, immediately after digging up the garden, since nitrogen in such compounds is very slowly absorbed by the soil and needs long-term treatment with soil microorganisms. Currently, the most popular is ammonium sulfate, which is highly soluble in water. To achieve the maximum positive result, it is recommended to add a small amount of lime to the fertilizer solution.

Amide fertilizers are complex organic compounds obtained by artificial means. The most famous representative of this group of dressings is urea. Its solution is used for watering plants, as well as for foliar application.

Of the ammonium-nitrate group of fertilizers, only ammonium nitrate is currently used, which contains many nitrogen compounds that are easily assimilated by garden crops. It is used only in combination with lime to prevent soil leaching.

The frequency and intensity of fertilizing with nitrogen compounds depend on the species of plants grown in the garden. For example, all types of cabbage, celery, asparagus and rhubarb always require additional intake of nitrates, lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, spinach, onions and beets are less "capricious", and legumes practically do not need nitrogen, since beneficial bacteria living in their root system, they develop the necessary connections on their own.

It is not recommended to arbitrarily exceed the concentration of chemical fertilizers in order to increase soil fertility: nitrates and other active compounds can cause root burns, as well as lead to abnormalities in plant growth and development. If the soil contains almost no nutrients, several fertilizing with various mixtures should be carried out.

Phosphate fertilizers are used to stimulate abundant flowering and fruit formation. The most popular dressings belonging to this group are superphosphate, nitrophoska, ammophos, bone meal.

Ordinary superphosphate, in addition to phosphorus compounds, contains sulfur and gypsum, which ensures the maintenance of the optimum acidity of the soil. Granules of this composition dissolve perfectly in warm water, therefore superphosphate is used as periodic liquid dressings.

Ammophos is a complex complex fertilizer containing not only phosphorus compounds, but also nitrogen. That is why it is often used to feed the soil in areas of a large area: the nutrient solution provides plants with the substances necessary for growth and development. It is applied only at the root, since active compounds can cause burns to the stem and leaves.

Diammophos has a higher concentration than ammophos, so it should be used with extreme caution.

Nitrophoska contains three basic elements vital for all types of garden crops - potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. In sandy and sandy loam soils, this fertilizer is applied in early spring, in clay and loamy soils - in the fall. To achieve the best result, it is recommended to use nitrophoska in the form of an aqueous solution, observing the concentration recommended in the attached instructions.

Bone meal is a very effective and easy-to-use phosphate fertilizer. It acts gradually, over a long period of time, enriching the soil with nutrients and microelements useful for plants. Most often, this top dressing is applied under perennials.

Potash mixtures are used to improve the development of plants, stimulate their flowering and the subsequent formation of fruits.

The overwhelming majority of potassium compounds are readily soluble in water and are quickly absorbed by the soil. Most often, potash salt, potassium magnesium, potassium chloride, nitroammophoska, azofoska, etc. are used to process the garden.

Potassium chloride is rarely used today, because it has an undesirable side effect - during the dissolution process, this mixture releases free chlorine harmful to plants. That is why it is recommended to apply fertilizer to the soil in autumn so that chlorine will gradually erode.

Potassium salt is an effective fertilizer that is used to feed root crops. It is also introduced in the autumn to avoid the destructive effect of chlorine on young plants.

Kalimagnesia contains enough magnesium to meet the needs of garden plants in this element, while the amount of chlorine released is extremely small. This fertilizer is recommended to be applied to sandy and sandy soils with a loose mechanical structure.

Potassium sulfate is easily soluble in water and does not contain free chlorine at all. This feature allows this fertilizer to be used throughout the growing season.

Nitroammofosku is used in autumn or spring. The complex mixture contains compounds of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.

Azofoska is distinguished by its increased solubility and ease of assimilation by the soil of all substances included in the fertilizer. This fertilizer is usually applied to the soil in early spring, immediately after the upper layer thaws.

Microfertilizers are special nutritional mixtures containing all trace elements necessary for plants. They are available in the form of soluble tablets, the composition of which is developed individually for each vegetable crop. The method of dissolution and application of microfertilizers is detailed in the attached instructions.

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