Henomeles or Japanese quince - an oriental guest in your garden
As soon as they call the low bushes of Japanese quince, growing in garden plots and pleasing to the eye with densely planted red, orange or white flowers. The proper name chaenomeles scratches the ear with too scientific sound, the melodiously tender quince, or quince, does not reflect the essence, and the definition of northern lemon characterizes only the attitude towards fruits, overlooking the charm of flowering bushes. At the same time, a rare gardener, having seen this plant at least once, does not mentally begin to try it on to his site.
What is Japanese quince
Small deciduous trees or shrubs belonging to the genomelis of the Rosaceae family. Wild-growing representatives are found in China and Japan. In Europe and North America, these plants have been familiar for more than two hundred years due to their excellent flowering and the ability of chaenomeles to form dense natural borders. In the Soviet Union, Japanese quince called quince became widespread in the Baltic States, especially in Latvia.
By mistake, chaenomeles seeds were sent to Latvia instead of the seeds of the common quince (lat. Cydonia). For a long time it was cultivated there as quince, although the misunderstanding was quickly cleared up. The properties of the fruit were studied and it was determined that the content of vitamin C, carotene, B vitamins and organic acids surpasses lemon. From here comes another common name for chaenomeles - Northern lemon.
Shoots of most varieties have thorns, which provide planting and a protective function.
The thorns on the shoots are a lot of hassle when harvesting.
The height of the bushes, depending on the place of growth, ranges from one to six meters. There are creeping forms. On the territory of Russia, it rarely grows more than one and a half to two meters. The trunk and branches are usually brown, sometimes with a reddish tint. Shoots are sometimes covered with thorns. Glossy leaves of chaenomeles are round in shape, ovoid-oval or lanceolate. Have jagged or serrated edges.
Chaenomeles leaves are round, ovoid or oval
Flowers, magnificent in color and appearance, attract bees with a delicate aroma. The color of the petals is different for different varieties. There are white, pale pink, orange and red. Simple or terry in shape. A simple flower has five petals, from twenty to fifty bright thin stamens and a pistil, consisting of five accrete pistils. Chaenomeles bloom is usually observed in April-May.
Photo gallery: flowering chaenomeles
Colorful flowering and compact bushes led to the use of Japanese quince in landscape design. Chaenomeles looks great in the neighborhood with other plants, in single plantings and as a border.
Photo gallery: Japanese quince in landscape design
Despite the fact that the plant was known and actively used in the formation of gardens, the valuable properties of the fruit were not known. The small fruits of chaenomeles are shaped like an apple or quince. The color is lemon yellow, orange or yellow with a blush.
Chaenomeles fruits are a valuable raw material for the food, pharmaceutical and perfume industries due to their rich chemical composition. They contain biologically active substances (ascorbic acid, carotene, B vitamins), organic (malic, citric, tartaric, fumaric, chlorogenic, quinic) and aromatic (coffee, coumaric isomers) acids, pectin, phenolic, minerals, carbohydrates, fatty oils.
The average weight of fruits, depending on the variety and growing conditions, ranges from 30-40 to 150-300 grams. The surface is oily. The pulp is very dense, sour, has a sharp citrus aroma and contains a large amount of pectin. The seed chambers contain many small brown seeds.
Chaenomeles fruits are very aromatic but taste sour
Chaenomeles fruits ripen at the end of September or October.
Almost no variety of Japanese quince matures completely in the conditions of central Russia. But the peculiarity of this plant is that the fruits can be harvested unripe, the amount of ascorbic acid after picking the fruits does not decrease, and according to some information, even increases during storage.
Due to the sour taste and dense pulp, chaenomeles is not used in food in its raw form. Japanese quince is used in the preparation of compotes, preserves, confitures.
For a long time she suffered, harvesting the fruits of quince. The dense pulp did not succumb to the knife and resisted as best it could. The process of processing aromatic quince more and more resembled a sophisticated torture, until a friend suggested a simple and easy way to make jam. The washed ripe chaenomeles fruits should be placed in an enamel pot, covered with a small amount of boiling water, covered with a lid and put on fire. A few minutes after boiling, the pulp is boiled. The contents of the pan are cooled and passed through a colander. The seed chambers are easily separated, and a thick, aromatic jelly confiture is ready. Sugar is added to taste. If desired, chaenomeles is combined with an apple, pear or plum.
The northern lemon, in contrast to its thermophilic namesake, is an unpretentious plant. It is not demanding on the composition of the soil and grows even on poor lands. Differs in good winter hardiness. Usually representatives of this genus have deep and branched roots, due to which they are able to tolerate drought. Practically not damaged by pests. There are rare records of damage by aphids and gall midges.
Video: about growing Japanese quince
Planting Japanese quince
Chaenomeles is not very picky. The only condition that must be met when planting Japanese quince seedlings is illumination. In the shade, the plant bears worse fruit.
For chaenomeles, sunny, bright areas are chosen, protected from the north wind. It can be planted both in spring and autumn. Seedlings are usually buried in a continuous trench at a distance of 90–100 cm, but single plantings are also used. The pit is 40 cm deep, 50 cm wide. Optimum soil acidity: pH 5.0–5.5. Bushes also grow on clayey soils, so the planting pits do not always drain, but it has been noticed that the introduction of humus in a 1: 1 ratio leads to an increase in the size of the fruit.
Some gardeners recommend shortening the roots of the seedlings by 20–40 cm before planting and treating them with a clay mash. Others believe that they do not need to be cut off, but rather dusted with Kornevin to avoid stress during planting. These recommendations apply only to open-rooted plants. For containerized seedlings, planting stress is minimal.
- Dig a hole 50x50x40 cm.
- Mix humus with soil in a 1: 1 ratio.
- A bush is planted without deepening the root collar.
- They fall asleep in the ground, trampling down tightly and forming an irrigation hole.
- The trunk circle is abundantly watered and mulched.
Immediately after planting, the bush is cut to a height of 20-25 cm.
Mulching the trunk circle emphasizes the beauty of the bush, ripens moisture and prevents weeds from growing
Reproduction of Japanese quince
Chaenomeles can be propagated vegetatively and by seed (generatively). During vegetative propagation, chaenomeles retains the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. But getting seedlings from your own seeds is also important. They are more adapted to local conditions, have new properties different from the parental ones, which are used for breeding, and can be used as a stock.
Vegetative propagation of chaenomeles
Chaenomeles is propagated by:
- root suckers,
- dividing the bush.
All these methods are quite simple.
For propagation in the first half of summer, cut stem cuttings 20–25 cm long. Young and mature cuttings take root equally well.
To get cuttings:
- A lignified or green shoot is cut off.
- The apical kidney is removed.
- Depending on the length of the shoot, one or more cuttings are harvested.
- They are planted in the ground at an angle so that at least two buds are underground.
They are planted in small greenhouses for rooting, after which they are planted in a permanent place.
Another way is more familiar to me. In fertilized soil, I plant a cutting to a depth of 10-15 cm at an angle of 45about to the surface of the earth. I water it. I close it with a three-liter jar on top. I try not to touch the jar until sprouts appear to keep the humidity high. By autumn, the young plant is ready. I mulch it with humus and cover it for the winter.
Reproduction of chaenomeles by stem cuttings
Reproduction by root suckers
The root offspring is separated from the mother bush and transplanted to the right place. The method is not difficult even for novice gardeners.
Japanese quince is easy to propagate by root suckers
Formation of layering
Overgrown chaenomeles bushes with low branches are conveniently propagated by layering. Sprinkle shoots with humus and periodically watered. For greater reliability, you can dig a groove, lay a branch and cover with a layer of humus. Over the summer, the cuttings take root, and they can be separated from the mother bush in the fall and planted in a new place.
There are also some modifications of this breeding method.
Reproduction of the chaenomeles bush by lateral layers
Dividing the bush
Japanese quince is also propagated by dividing the bush. For better rooting, it is recommended to sprinkle the slices with Kornevin. Only the bushes obtained in this way do not always take root in a new place.
Dividing a bush does not require much effort, but the survival rate of children is not very high
Generative reproduction of Japanese quince
You can sow fresh chaenomeles seeds in the fall in the ground. At the same time, their germination capacity will be low. Sowing seeds in spring requires cold stratification. The seeds are kept for at least two to three months in wet sand at a temperature of 0-3aboutC. Seedlings are obtained for selection work or for use as a stock.
Depending on the goals, pruning is distinguished:
Forming is used in cases where chaenomeles is grown as a curb or in landscape design. This is the field of activity of professional gardeners. For summer residents and amateurs, it is important to remember that the main fruiting occurs on young shoots of Japanese quince, so the old branches are removed. Usually 13-15 shoots are left no more than four years old. For better illumination of the bush, the thickening twigs are removed. Sanitary pruning is done annually. At the same time, frozen, broken and weak shoots are removed. According to experts, all branches that are outside the snow cover freeze in central Russia. On this part of the shoot, flower buds die, and flowering is observed only near the trunk.
Pruning is carried out in the spring before the start of sap flow. They also practice autumn pruning. Usually it is carried out no later than a month before the expected cold weather. Some gardeners in the fall quite radically cut the shoots, leaving no more than 15–35 cm. In this case, the entire bush turns out to be under the snow in winter, and in spring it is covered with flowers together.
When there is not much space in the garden, but there is a desire to see a variety of varieties of chaenomeles, they resort to grafting. As a stock, they use either their own seedlings, or plants from their own family: quince, apple, pear. There is a mention of mountain ash and hawthorn rootstocks for chaenomeles.
Experienced gardeners recommend that you immediately think over the place where the chaenomeles bush will be planted, since then it is difficult to transplant it. There are several reasons for this. This plant is most often prickly, you have to cut off the shoots in order to dig in the bush. Chaenomeles has a powerful root system that ensures the plant's survival in drought conditions, but when transplanting, it is impossible to dig out the bush so as not to damage the roots. Most often, the transplanted plants do not take root in a new place.
For planting, you can use your own shoots or layering. At the same time, they retain all the properties of the mother plant.
Video: the opinion of the gardener about the transplant of Japanese quince
How to grow chaenomeles
Japanese quince is surprisingly unpretentious and hardy. It grows on the poorest soils and endures irrigation deficiencies. Almost all varieties grown in Russia are resistant to diseases and pests. There are mentions of aphid defeat. When parasitic insects appear, the bushes should be sprayed 2-3 times with Biotlin according to the instructions.
The main condition for normal growth, flowering and fruiting of chaenomeles is light. In the shade, the bushes do not bloom well and bear fruit. The flowering is also influenced by the level of snow cover. If the shoots remain above the snow, then the flower buds die, so some gardeners recommend bending the branches and covering them.
If you plant several chaenomeles bushes, you can get a rich harvest of fruits due to cross-pollination of plants, as well as by attracting more pollinating insects. In areas where there are no insects, bushes may bloom, but there will be no harvest. Fruiting of chaenomeles begins at the age of three. If the bush is older and does not bear fruit, a weak honey solution is often used to attract insects. Dissolve one tablespoon of fragrant honey in a liter of water and spray the bush. Other fruit trees and shrubs can also be processed.
By planting a few plants, you can harvest a rich harvest of chaenomeles.
When growing chaenomeles for the sake of fragrant fruits, the bushes are fed to get a bountiful harvest. For this, organic or mineral fertilizers are used.
The easiest way is to mulch the trunk circle with humus. At the same time, the growth of weeds is suppressed, and the soil receives nutrients with each watering. Watered with infusion of weeds or slurry. Nettle, comfrey, runny and other herbs are poured with water in a ratio of 1: 2, insisted for several days until fermentation begins. The liquid is decanted, water is added in a double - triple volume and brought under the bush. And the manure is poured with water 1: 3, left to ferment, decanted, diluted 1: 7 and watered.
When applying mineral fertilizers, they adhere to the general rule: nitrogen fertilizers are used only in spring, potash and phosphorus fertilizers can be used from early summer to autumn. Fertilizers are applied strictly according to the instructions, observing safety measures. Some gardeners feed the bushes two or three times per season. Others believe that you should not get carried away with mineral fertilizers, but it is better to apply ash under the root at the rate of 500 ml per bush and half a bucket of rotted manure or compost for each bush.
Features of planting and care in various regions, including in the Moscow region, Siberia
According to gardeners, chaenomeles bushes can withstand frosts up to 30aboutC. This allows Japanese quince to be grown in places with harsh climates. To prevent the shoots from freezing, they either cover the plants, or the branches are bent in advance so that the bush is then completely under the cover of snow. To do this, pin the branches to the ground with wire clamps or simply tilt the shoots and put a load on top.
When planting, it is important to choose illuminated places on the south side of the house or the southern slopes, if the site is on an elevation. Chaenomeles grows on clay and light soils. Top dressing and watering contribute to an increase in the size and ripening of fruits.
Summer residents who prefer to spend the weekend in the country without bothering with gardening work, it is enough to plant a bush in a sunny place, cut it off in early spring, and periodically water it. Some water 2-3 times during the whole season in the absence of rain.
In a short summer, the fruits are harvested unripe. They ripen when they lie down.
The climate in the Moscow region is quite mild, and in summer there are no problems with growing chaenomeles. Watering during prolonged drought, but it is very rare for the Moscow region. It is important to take care of the shelter of the bushes so that flower buds do not suffer in winters with little snow. If you failed to get to the site for one reason or another, do not be upset. The bush is easily regenerated. It is necessary to cut off the frozen twigs in the spring, and chaenomeles will delight you with near-stem flowers.
In Western Siberia, the weather is characterized by sharp temperature drops. From May to July it is often hot, so the Japanese quince is watered so that the ovary does not fall off. Irrigation is usually carried out in early June and July. If there is no rain, you can repeat the watering in August.
The main types and varieties of chaenomeles
The genomes genus has about fifteen species. The most common ones are:
- Henomeles Catayan;
- Japanese chaenomeles or Japanese quince (synonym: Mauleia chaenomeles or low quince);
- Chaenomeles is beautiful;
- Chaenomeles is proud or superb (superba).
The most widespread in our country is Japanese quince. It is the most unpretentious and does not form tall bushes. Growing other species is difficult.
An overview of some varieties of chaenomeles:
- Geisha Girl is a small bush with double peach flowers. Grows in partial shade. It is used to decorate the garden in single plantings and in an ensemble. The fruits are used in blanks.
- Northern lemon, or Yukigoten. Chaenomeles variety with large white double flowers. It grows slowly. Low spreading bush of exceptional beauty. The fruits ripen late and have a pleasant citrus aroma. Marmalade and confiture are prepared from them.
- Tsido is a small shrub with coral flowers. The variety was bred in Latvia. Excellent as an ornamental plant, while due to its high yield and winter hardiness, it is grown for industrial production of fruits.
The Henomeles Albatross was included in the State Register in 2017. It is a thornless variety with white, simple flowers. Fruit size is medium to large. Disease and drought resistant. Recommended to grow in the Central and Central Black Earth regions.
Photo gallery: northern lemon - a source of vitamins and aesthetic pleasure
Chaenomeles fruits resemble quince in appearance, and in terms of aroma and richness with vitamins, they compete with lemon. With their unpretentiousness and noble beauty of delicate flowers, they convey the spirit of the East. And it is not difficult to grow this beauty and benefit in your garden.
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Requirements for growing Japanese quince in the Moscow region
In an effort to ennoble their site and plant outlandish plants and fruit trees, experienced gardeners turn their eyes to such a culture as Japanese quince, planting and caring for which in the Moscow region are not particularly difficult. In recent years, this culture has gained widespread popularity. For many, its other names "Cydonia", "Northern lemon" are familiar, but the essence does not change from this: quince belongs to a rare type of plant that can simultaneously decorate flower beds and flower beds and delight with delicious fruits.
- 1 Varietal features
- 2 Planting Japanese quince in the suburbs
- 2.1 Timing
- 2.2 Choosing a location
- 2.3 Ground preparation
- 2.4 Procedure
- 3 Breeding options
- 3.1 Using cuttings
- 3.2 Seed method
- 3.3 By vaccination
- 3.4 Division
- 3.5 Using Layers
- 4 Care instructions
- 4.1 Watering and feeding
- 4.2 Pruning the crown
- 4.3 Preparing for the winter period
- 5 Lurking dangers
- 6 Collection, storage and use of the crop
- 7 Conclusion
Japanese quince is a deciduous shrub with dense foliage. At home, it grows up to 3 m, in the Moscow region and the middle lane it reaches one and a half meters. Chaenomeles is considered to be the owner of a spreading crown. With age, green shoots become tree-like and change color to black-brown. The flowers are large, about 5 cm, collected in inflorescences of 2-6 pieces. Fruits up to 6 cm in diameter look like an apple, have a rounded shape and a greenish-yellow tint. They ripen in autumn, have a fragrant aroma, have a tart taste and are edible.
The plant loves heat and light, but at the same time it can withstand frosts of thirty degrees. Depending on the region, it is distinguished by the splendor of flowering. For example, a shrub growing in Siberia in the Urals will yield less fruit than a crop grown in the Moscow region, the Leningrad region or the Krasnodar Territory.
Japanese quince varieties are also quite diverse. There are so many of them that the description can take several pages. But domestic gardeners prefer to grow certain types of shrubs:
- Ukrainian selection - Nikolay, Likhtar
- domestic bush varieties - Golden Apple, Pomegranate bracelet
- French - Simoni, Nivali
- Belgian - Merlozi
- Dutch selection - Fascination.
- Japanese - Umbilikata, Toyo Nishiki
- American - Crimson & Gold, Red Joy.
No less popular are such winter-hardy varieties of chaenomeles as Rubra, Gaillardi, Nika, Papelya, Vitaminny, Kalif, Ellie Mossel and many others.
Major diseases and preventive measures
Japanese quince is a plant very resistant to diseases and pests, however, it is not always possible to completely eliminate the risk of disease and damage, since the shrub usually grows next to other garden and ornamental crops. So, when grown in a garden, the stem and branches can be damaged by an apple shield, and bright fragrant buds by a bud weevil or leafworm. Quince leaves, due to the proximity of fruit crops, sometimes become prey for various mites, apple aphids, moths and other garden pests. The most common diseases are fungal.
How to protect a beautiful tree from these misfortunes? First of all, attention should be paid to prevention. Shrubs need to be processed twice a season: in early spring and in autumn, before wintering.
Against fungal diseases and bacterial flora in spring, plants are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or fungicides for ornamental and floral plants (Fundazol). From damage and decay of buds, drugs (Kemifos, Horus) are effective, which are used during the formation of buds.
Decorative forms intended only for flowering can be processed several times per season. If the fruits of the quince are eaten, then during their ovary and ripening, spraying is not carried out. After harvesting, autumn pruning should be done: remove all diseased branches, shape the ornamental shrub. Then collect and burn all the branches and leaves - do not leave organic residues on the ground, as they often contain spores of fungi and pest larvae. Follow these simple rules of care, and your quince will delight you with beautiful flowers and healthy fruits for many years.