How to prevent wasps from destroying crops and saving grapes
Sweet juicy grapes are not only popular with people. Often, ripening brushes are massively attacked by wasps, sucking the juice from the berries. As a result, if nothing is done and the bunches are not protected, a significant part of the crop is spoiled, and sometimes nothing can be saved at all.
How to protect the crop radically: removing the nest
Not a single gardener is ready to leave the grape harvest to be eaten by the wasps. Therefore, there are many ways to fight insects. To enhance the effect, it is advisable to combine several methods, applying them simultaneously.
Wasps do not harm the vine directly, but they can spoil the harvest very much
One of the most effective solutions to the problem is to destroy the wasp nest. It can be found early in the morning and at dusk by tracking individuals heading for food and returning back. Going to "hunt", wait for the night when the wasps are less active, and take care of protection from bites. There should be no open areas of the body - put on pants and a jacket made of thick fabric, a hat, gloves, cover your face with a beekeeper's mesh mask.
When planning to destroy a hornet's nest, take care of your own safety; by the way, it is still not known why, but out of several people, a wasp is more likely to bite someone who is allergic to its venom
The hornets' nest is destroyed:
- pouring any flammable liquid and setting fire;
- drowning in a bucket of water (the bucket is raised to the hanging nest from below);
- treating with special insecticides;
- sealing the holes with foam.
When choosing a suitable method for destroying a wasp nest, consider its location
Video: destruction of a wasp nest
A delicate way to save berries: using nets for individual bunches or the entire vineyard
Most often, berries that have already been damaged by birds suffer from wasps. They are attracted by the smell of fresh juice. To protect crops from birds and insects, cover the vines with a protective fine mesh polymer fiber net. It is pulled over the frame so that the grapes appear as if in a "cage", or simply thrown on top.
Birds are unable to reach the grape clusters hidden under the net, and undamaged berries do not attract wasps as often as pecked ones.
A more time consuming option is individual protection for each hand. Small bags can be sewn independently from old tulle, nylon tights, or you can buy. They are put on a brush from below, fixed on top with an elastic band for money, a clothespin, or simply tied. Make sure that the bag does not fit tightly to the lower berries in the bunch. Once sewn or purchased, the bags will serve you for more than one season, so the work and money spent will pay off.
The stores sell bags of different sizes - manufacturers take into account the weight and shape of the grape clusters
Preventing wasps attacks is much easier than saving crops later. Therefore, many gardeners prefer to repel insects. A common disadvantage of these methods is the short-term effect, especially if it rains regularly. The vineyard will have to be processed every 3-7 days. To scare away wasps use:
- The smell of smoke. Wasps do not like any smoke, but especially the one that is released when burning dry needles. You can burn bonfires next to the vines or spray the soil with "Liquid Smoke" used for smoking.
If there is no desire and / or opportunity to regularly burn fires near the vineyard, liquid smoke will completely replace the usual
- Vinegar. Anyone will do - apple, grape, table. Insects do not like the pungent sour smell. Half a glass of vinegar is diluted in a liter of cold water. The vines are sprayed early in the morning.
Any vinegar to wasps is unpleasant - not only because of the pungent smell, but also because of the pungency
- Baking soda. In addition to protecting against wasps, the soda solution promotes the collection of sugar content in berries, prevents the development of fungal diseases (especially stem rot and mildew), accelerates the healing of lesions on the skin if the berries are already cracked or pecked by birds. In a bucket (10 l) of cold water, dilute 100-110 g of soda, adding about 20 g of shavings of green potash or laundry soap, so that the solution better "sticks" to the berries.
There are many uses for baking soda in the garden.
- Chilli. Fresh or dry pods are hung next to the nest, forcing insects to leave their habitat, and next to the vines, scaring them away.
Many insects dislike chili peppers, and wasps are no exception.
- Spices. The smell of some plants is unpleasant for wasps. Vines can be surrounded by a "wall" of mint, wormwood, geranium, tansy. Additionally, bunches of dry or fresh herbs are hung on the grapes.
Decorative wormwood looks much more attractive than ordinary wormwood, retaining the pungent smell of leaves typical of the latter.
Traps give a good effect. They are used from mid-spring until the end of fruiting. They can be bought in stores - products under the brands Help, Rexant, Garden Show, Raptor are popular.
The principle of operation for purchased and homemade wasp traps is the same.
Many gardeners prefer to save money and do something similar on their own. The mechanism of action in both cases is the same. Once every 3-4 days, the traps will have to be emptied, destroying the trapped insects and changing the bait.
Old jam, especially lightly fermented, is a great bait for wasps
It's easy to make a trap:
- Cut the plastic bottle crosswise, separating the tapered neck.
- Flip it over and insert it into the rest of it, like a funnel.
- Make holes at the top along the edges and insert a thin wire or thread so that the trap can be hung.
- Pour the bait inside - jam or honey diluted with water, sugar syrup, the pulp of rotten fruits, kvass, beer.
- Lubricate the neck from the inside with Vaseline - the wasps that got inside the trap will not find a way out of the bottle and drown in the bait, and if they find it, they will not be able to get out, since the neck is slippery.
Several dozen wasps can be caught in a makeshift trap next to a vineyard in a day.
The traps are hung where the sun hits them. The incipient fermentation process further enhances the effect of the baits. One piece will not be enough to protect the entire vineyard - place traps every 2-3 m.
Video: DIY wasp trap
A slightly different design option is a glass with pieces of fresh meat or fish standing in a cropped plastic bottle suspended from a vine. The bottle is filled with soapy water so that it does not slightly reach the outside of the glass. Wasps are predatory insects, so meat is a suitable bait for them. Grabbing a piece that is too heavy for themselves, they immediately fall into a soapy solution and drown.
Another option, also effective, is pieces of linoleum, plywood, plastic, cardboard greased with long-drying glue (which is used to catch mice). To attract wasps, they are sprinkled with fruit juice on top or a few grapes are crushed.
The glue that helps get rid of mice can also be used in the fight against wasps.
The use of chemicals is allowed only if there is at least 20 days left until harvest. And even then the berries will have to be thoroughly washed before eating after processing. As a rule, unripe grapes are unattractive for wasps. But the chemicals can be applied during any growing season of the vine by mixing with the bait.
The simplest option, which has long proven its effectiveness, is boric acid. A bag (10 g) of powder is dissolved in a liter of cold water until the crystals are completely dispersed. The bait (the same as for traps) is laid out in cut plastic bottles, disposable cups, saucers, mixed with poison (10 ml of solution per 50 g). When boric acid enters the stomach of a wasp, it causes muscle paralysis and death.
Boric acid has long been used by gardeners for other purposes - its effectiveness in the fight against various insects has been proven by more than one generation of gardeners
Similarly, insecticides against wasps can be added as bait for traps (preparations Lambda-Zone, Delta-Zone, Get, Alatar). A solution of these concentrates is prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and used immediately. Intestinal poisons cause the death of the wasp within 5-15 minutes due to muscle paralysis. When preparing the solution, use personal protective equipment (respirator, goggles, gloves), read the instructions - the hazard class of the drug is indicated there, its harmfulness to the environment, beneficial fauna, insects, domestic animals and humans. Dosage - 10-15 ml of solution per 50 g of bait.
To combat wasps on grapes, any broad-spectrum insecticide is suitable, for example, Get
The advantage of chemicals is a long period of action - 14–30 days. There is no need to clean the traps from wasps - before death the insect will have time to fly away from the container with the bait.
Video: recommendations for dealing with wasps attacking grapes
Feedback on the methods used
It is quite possible to protect the bunches of grapes from wasps. Of course, this will require additional investment of time, effort and money from the gardener, but the harvest of undamaged berries will pay off all the efforts. Experienced gardeners recommend different methods, it is better to use several methods in combination.
How and what to process tomatoes from late blight in a greenhouse: a review of the best remedies and effective folk methods
Late blight is tacitly considered the worst enemy of tomatoes. And this is quite justified, because the disease arises easily, but it is possible to cure plants only with the help of professional or proven folk methods.
Dangerous germs can be found anywhere: on seeds, in soil, in garden tools. Fortunately, preventive measures help prevent tomato infestations. Consider further what late blight is and how experienced summer residents struggle with it.
Why you need to fight with moles on the site
Moles in most cases settle in groups and reproduce rather quickly. But this is not their main danger. If you do not pay attention and do not take the necessary measures, then soon you will find that the site will remain without bushes and trees... In this case, all of its soil will be dug, and on the surface there will be numerous holes.
Under natural conditions, moles even bring certain benefits, but they have nothing to do in the garden or garden plot. Therefore, it is imperative to get rid of them as soon as possible. Fighting a mole on the site should be as effective as possible... You can use self-control methods, but it is best to turn to professionals who can guarantee that the site is free of moles.
Preparations for the treatment of grapes from diseases
For spraying grapes from diseases, fungicides are used. There are many preparations based on them, and sometimes it is difficult to figure out which one is best to use.
There are a number of drugs that have proven to be effective. These are drugs - "Abiga-Peak", "Baktofit", «Bordeaux mixture / liquid ", "Kuproksat", "Cumulus / colloidal sulfur", "Oxyhom / HOM", "Rapid", "Profit Gold", "Sporobacterin", "SKOR", "Strobi", "TOPAZ, "Tiovit Jet", "Homoxil", "Horus" and a number of others.
Examples of preparations for spring processing of grapes
For clarity, preparations for treating grapes from diseases are summarized in a table indicating:
- diseases for which they are used
- dosages / rates of application
- method and time of processing
- application features
- waiting time and frequency of treatments
The benefits of peroxide for seedlings:
- hydrogen peroxide disinfects the soil and is able to reanimate even old soil,
- saturates the soil and plants with oxygen,
- stimulates the growth of seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, flowers.
It is believed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the water for irrigating seedlings brings its composition closer to rainwater, melted snow. And this is much more useful than watering with ordinary tap water. Rainwater, melt water is softer, it is more natural for plants.
How to get rid of moles on the site: the most effective ways and means of struggle
Any summer resident knows that the appearance of a mole in the garden will turn into disaster for the entire crop.
Moreover, the animals do not settle alone, and if at least one appears, wait for his whole family in the near future! Mounds of loosened earth grow randomly in the middle of the beds and flower beds, spoiling the neat appearance of the site and destroying the crop.
The animal regularly loosens the ground, exposing plant roots and disrupting the structure of the soil. Catching a nimble pest is the best way to preserve the beauty of flower beds and beds and save the crop.
Mole: description, lifestyle, reasons for appearing at their summer cottage
The mole is a small carnivorous mammal with short legs, belonging to the order of insectivores. It has an elongated body with thick velvety fur. The animal's coat is black-brown or dark gray. The body length of an adult reaches 15–20 cm.
Moles have underdeveloped eyes (they lack the retina and lens), and the eye openings themselves look like narrow slits covered with movable eyelids. In some species, the eyelids are completely fused together.
The lack of vision is compensated by an excellent sense of smell and touch.
This voracious creature cannot do without food for more than 12 hours. The weight eaten at one time can exceed the weight of the animal itself by 1.5 times. It feeds on small mice and insects: earthworms, mosquitoes, beetles, slugs.
The search for food causes moles to constantly migrate underground in the hope of finding an area inhabited by edible insects. As a result, underground diggers dig tunnels underground, connecting them together in bizarre labyrinths.
Excavations are carried out shallowly, no more than 10–20 cm from the soil surface, but the length of the tunnels is several hundred meters.
At first, one mole may appear at the summer cottage - a scout, and in a few days other members of his numerous family will come here. Large mole families number several dozen individuals. The activity of animals increases with the arrival of spring. As soon as the ground is free of snow and dries up, fresh wormholes can be observed on elevations in sunny places.
The pest comes to the surface through a molehill - a loose embankment in the form of a cone-shaped mound. Reasons for the appearance of a pest in the country:
- loose soil of the backyard - it is easy for an excavator to dig ornate tunnels in soft soil
- the abundance of mice and earthworms on the site
- lack of natural enemies - the mole is not afraid of anyone and takes root in the garden in any place you like.
Is there any benefit from moles or only harm and how are they dangerous?
As a result of the activity of the mole, whole beds of vegetables can be ruined, as the roots of the plants will be damaged. Bushes of raspberries, currants or gooseberries can also suffer in the garden if the mole decides to crawl out and dig the mole under the bush.
However, there are pluses from the life of this nimble animal. The mole is an orderly for the site, since it eats not only earthworms, but also many garden pests: insect larvae, beetles, beetles, and even small rodents. All these insects and their larvae harm plantings, and moles help fight them.
In addition, molehills saturate the earth with oxygen (promote aeration), and in the process of building tunnels, the soil is constantly loosened. Still, there is more harm from the animal, so if the owner wants to preserve his harvest and ornamental plants in the country, then he should get rid of moles.
Shrews: what do they look like, why do they appear in the country, what is the threat of their invasion?
Shrews are small insectivores, similar in appearance to mice with an elongated snout like a proboscis.
They live in empty stumps and trunks of fallen trees, they can also settle in burrows and tunnels of moles. They feed on various insects and their larvae.
These are voracious animals with an increased metabolism, therefore, adults eat such an amount of food that exceeds their own weight by 2 times.
Shrews are attracted by garden plots densely populated with insect larvae. These animals treat and clean their backyard, however, in search of food, the shrews loosen the soil with the help of their nose-trunk and thereby destroy the plantings. The invasion of shrews in the garden threatens to damage the beds and flower beds.
Special means for deratization
What to do to save the harvest? To eliminate uninvited guests, you can resort to the help of the deratization service, whose representatives will come at the request to the summer cottage and exterminate the pests.
Poisoned baits occupy the first place in the rating of special equipment. The mole eats only live food and will not eat poisoned food.
However, if such a poison enters its burrow, the mole, bypassing its possessions, will stumble upon a poisoned "gift" and get dirty on it.
Then he will begin to lick his skin, the poison will enter the stomach, and the animal will die. This method allows you to destroy pests 100 percent.
For the destruction of shrews, another reliable method is suitable - tablets "Alfos", the active ingredient of which is aluminum phosphide. This substance, when interacting with moisture, exudes a poisonous gas, phosphine.
A real means of fighting underground pests is the "Fas" checker designed for fumigating greenhouses and greenhouses. When a checker is set on fire, toxic sulfuric smoke is emitted.
You should put the checker in the mole, set it on fire and cover it with a bucket on top so that the sulfur smoke goes through the tunnel.
Calcium carbide works similarly to checkers. It is a chemical that, when it interacts with moisture, releases the toxic gas, acetylene, with an unpleasant odor. Pieces of carbide are laid in burrows and filled with water.
As a result, the underground passages are filled with acetylene, which scares away animals.
Sometimes the unpleasant smell of gas forces the animals to dig new exits to the surface in order to ventilate their tunnels, so it seems that there are more mole holes.
Mole wire traps
How to catch a mole? This can be done using mechanical traps and traps, the description and photos of which can be seen in the article. Traps are made from plastic bottles or pipe pieces that are placed in a burrow.
The principle of the trap is based on the fact that the mole moves in the hole, pushing off with sharp claws from its lower part. Falling into a smooth trap, the animal cannot push off from the slippery surface of the plastic and gets stuck in it.
To enhance the effect, you can put several earthworms in the trap so that the mole smells the food and gets into the trap.
A three-liter glass jar can also serve as a trap, the smooth walls of which will not allow the animal to get out.
To kill a mole, you can set a trap. This spring-loaded device works like a mousetrap. You can buy it in the store or make it yourself. The trap is set in an underground tunnel and covered with soil for camouflage. Climbing into the trap, the animal touches the spring mechanism, which activates the device and kills the pest.
Scarers, electronic devices, sound exposure
Mole repeller from a plastic bottle
You can effectively get rid of uninvited underground guests with the help of scarers, which are easy to do with your own hands. To do this, the owners of summer cottages install homemade turntables, ratchets or "noisemakers" from bottles.
The simplest thing is to cut a plastic bottle into petals-blades and bend them, then plant the neck on a stake and stick it into the soil between the moles' burrows. In strong winds, the blades rotate the bottle, and an unpleasant sound is produced that is not pleasant to the animals.
A similar sonic repeller can be made from a thin tin can.
A simple way to deal with shrews is to install ready-made acoustic systems, which are sold in stores: "Antikrot" and "Krotogon". The principle of operation of such sound electronic devices is based on the disorientation of pests using ultrasound. The device emits ultrasonic vibrations at a depth of 15–20 cm underground, while the sound wave in the ground propagates to the sides for 850–900 m.
As a result, at a distance of a kilometer, all animals feel an unpleasant sound, which they perceive as a signal of danger, and quickly leave the territory.
This method has an important advantage - it does not lead to the death of animals, but only drives them out of their habitable place. Such a device is not cheap and gives short-term results.
As soon as the device turns off and the ultrasound subsides, the pests can return again.
How to scare away animals, how to drive them away from the site?
How to get rid of moles in the country in a simple way? There are many popular methods to remove moles once and for all.
You can scare away uninvited guests with the help of plants with a strong unpleasant odor: Siberian spines, caper milkweed, castor oil plants, marigolds, daffodils.
Such plants are planted on the site in advance, in the spring. These plants will perfectly decorate your garden plot.
The imperial hazel grouse is a flower whose roots have a scent similar to that of foxes. Rhizomes quickly spread the "fox" smell through underground tunnels and scare away moles. What other plants can provide protection? Underground diggers hate the smell of garlic, dill, basil and celery.
The fight against moles has been carried out since ancient times, so there are many popular councils for driving them out of the site.
Kerosene-based products will help drive away uninvited guests: dilute 90 ml of a flammable liquid in 10 liters of warm water and soak old rags with this solution, which are then pushed into underground holes and tunnels. The smell of kerosene drives the animals away.
Naphthalene will also help drive out moles. You can remove pests from the garden using castor oil, which is poured into containers and placed between the beds.
A well-known remedy is herring heads, which are placed in underground tunnels. The fish starts to rot, exudes a pungent stench, and the pests leave. The downside of all these methods is that all the smells (of kerosene, rotten fish) are unpleasant for humans. On hot days, they can not only lime animals, but also cause headaches in humans.
Water and gas against underground inhabitants
You can try to defeat the moles with the help of water if there is a well of its own at the summer cottage. Burrows are poured under pressure to drown the animals. This method requires a huge amount of liquid, and in relation to animals, this is not the most humane method.
You can poison underground dwellers with car exhaust gas. A long hose is attached to the exhaust pipe, the end of which is placed in the animal's burrow, the car is started and poisoned within an hour. During this time, the pests should die from suffocation.
Extreme methods: methods of physical destruction
The extreme methods of killing moles include the physical destruction of animals, which is extremely inhumane. Not every summer resident will be able to apply them. You can get rid of unwanted underground guests with a shovel. For this, a person quietly, with small steps, walks along the tunnel of the mole and looks for the freshest grooves. Where the trench lengthens, most likely an animal is sitting.
A person must thrust a shovel behind the place where the mole is working in order to block his path to retreat. Another shovel is sharply stuck in front of the supposed location of the mole, that is, the animal is limited in movement from both sides. Then the animal will have to be destroyed with a hammer, if before that it has not yet fallen under the blade of the shovels.
Some summer residents are trying to get rid of annoying moles by throwing firecrackers into the molehills and setting them on fire. For maximum effect, explosives are placed simultaneously in all visible burrows. It should be remembered that this is an extremely dangerous option for the extermination of animals that requires special care.
How not to act when trying to escape from shrews and moles?
The gardener should be aware that smoke bombs with sulfur gas can lead to the death of the crop, so this method of fighting moles can only be used in early spring, before the onset of planting work. Do not abuse calcium carbide - in wet soil, it eventually turns into calcium hydroxide, which alkalizes the soil and harms plants.
Do not fill underground passages with acetylene (put carbide in water bottles), and then try to ignite this gas, since the air-acetylene mixture is flammable and can explode, injuring a person.
In the hot, dry period of summer, do not fill the mole passages with kerosene and other combustible mixtures, especially if there is dried grass above the passages.
This can cause a fire and lead to a fire in the summer cottage.
How to drive beavers away from the site
Beavers, by the way, the largest rodents of the Old World - only American capybaras are larger than them - have been exterminated for centuries. For the very warm fur and beaver jet, which was used in medicine and perfumery. In addition, the meat of beavers, which feed on vegetation, was eaten. Already in the middle of the 19th century, Europe began to take measures to protect beavers, of which there were fewer and fewer.
Thanks to strict laws, the ban on hunting and the inclusion in the Red Book, beavers are now often found. Including next to human housing. In the natural environment, only wolves and sometimes lynxes are enemies of beavers, so they usually feel very at ease near summer cottages. Therefore, if your house is located next to a reservoir, there is a risk of meeting beavers.
Beavers are good for nature. They are dams, blocking small rivers and streams with their dams. In such spills, its own ecological community appears, waterfowl, mollusks, desman, insects live. The water becomes cleaner as the sludge is trapped in the dam. Trees felled by beavers are eaten by ungulates and hares, and muskrats often settle in beavers' huts. Sheer benefit.
But for a person, not everything is so rosy. For the construction of their huts, beavers use hard wood, and eat soft wood and actively store it for the winter. Therefore, they can gnaw, undermine and knock down not only wild trees, but also fruit trees, which summer residents, of course, are not happy with. In addition, due to the construction of a beaver dam, some nearby areas may be flooded.
It is about the flooding and destruction of trees that the owners of plots who find themselves in the neighborhood with beavers complain about. Animals can also climb into the vegetable garden to eat root vegetables. Or arrange a tunnel under the outbuilding. It's also unpleasant. According to the reviews of homeowners who have encountered beavers, the animals are arrogant and are not particularly afraid of humans.
We admit right away that getting rid of the neighborhood with beavers is very difficult. Especially if you act in exclusively humane ways, without harming animals.
Important! It is possible to hunt beavers only with one-time permits, using only "humane" traps of the passing type. It won't be easy to get permission.
The easiest way to avoid problems with the appearance of beavers on the site is to build a reliable fence. Moreover, buried in the ground at least half a meter, and preferably a meter. The method, of course, is costly. In addition, the fence will protect the site and the trees on it, but flooding due to the beaver dam will not help to avoid.
Here are some methods of dealing with beavers based on the feedback and advice of homeowners who have encountered this problem:
- Dismantle the dam. It is best, of course, to do this in the summer, because no one wants to climb into cold water. Reviews of this method of struggle are twofold. In some cases, the beavers did indeed leave this place, moving away from people. In other cases, a new dam was built overnight. Or they left very close, settling again next to people.
- Get dogs. Yes, they remind beavers of their natural enemies - wolves. But the dogs should be large, the beaver will definitely not be scared of a small dog. Best of all, according to reviews, at least two large dogs, which are allowed to run around the site, and not kept in an enclosure or on a chain.
- Ultrasonic rodent repeller. Yes, a beaver is also a rodent, like mice with rats. But such scarers do not always work. Animals just get used to them and stop noticing them without feeling threatened.
- Protect all tree trunks with metal mesh. With other materials, beaver's powerful teeth will bite easily. The method is effective, but, again, it will not save you from flooding due to the beaver dam. And root crops in the garden will remain in danger.
- Noise. Beavers don't like him very much. There is a story on the network about how summer residents, tired of being next to beavers, stretched a wire, screwed speakers to the trees next to their huts and played loud music all day long. The people themselves were also, of course, not having fun, but after 10 days the beavers left on their own, tired of the noise. We can't say for sure whether this is true or not, but in any case, sound scarers will not interfere.
- Beavers do not like to be in the light, they work at night. Therefore, installing powerful floodlights in the place of their dam helps. Motion-sensing floodlights can be used to target the animals.
Together, the villagers can take more serious measures. For example, dig a ditch next to a beaver dam to release water and expose the entrance to the huts. Or insert a pipe to drain water into the bottom of the dam - this is how they approach in Canada, fighting flooding due to beavers. Yes, the construction of bypass canals will require efforts, and more than one person. But other reliable methods of rescue from the consequences of vigorous activity of beavers have not yet been invented.