Advantages and cultivation of apricot varieties Triumph severny
Apricot prefers to grow in areas with a warm climate, but today many varieties of this tree have been created, intended for cultivation in colder climates. One of them is the Northern Triumph variety.
The history of creation and description of the apricot variety Triumph North
Northern apricot Triumph was obtained by crossing the widely known and tested Krasnoshekiy variety and the Transbaikalian early Northern apricot, which acted as a rootstock. The purpose of this work was to increase the winter hardiness of the Red-cheeked while maintaining its best qualities. And it was successfully achieved.
At first, the new variety was zoned in the south of the Central Black Earth Region, but very quickly spread to the entire middle zone (including the Moscow Region and the Leningrad Region), crossed the Urals and conquered Siberia.
The variety has a high winter hardiness of wood (-30 ... 35 ° C) and an average winter hardiness of flower buds (-28 ° C).
Another positive quality as a result of selection received this apricot - a smaller tree height. If its parent without crown formation could grow up to 12 m by a venerable age, then the Northern Triumph has a strong, spreading crown up to 4 m high.
The fruits are large, usually weighing 50-60 g, yellow-orange in color, slightly pubescent, sweet. The stone is easily separated, the kernel is sweet, with an almond flavor, and is eaten.
Ripe apricot berries Triumph North do not crumble for several days
It blooms, like all apricots, early, and in late July - early August the harvest usually ripens. The berries are firmly attached to the branches and, while ripening, do not fall off for several days, which allows them to be removed from the tree intact.
The variety is highly self-fertile and does not require proximity to pollinators, which undoubtedly refers to its positive qualities.
Early maturity is also at its best - the gardener can taste the first berries already in the 3-4th year. The maximum yield (50-60 kg) should be waited up to 10-12 years.
The average lifespan of a tree is 25 years, with good care - up to 40 years. But the yield of old apricots is decreasing, so it is advisable to take care of replacing it with a younger one in a timely manner.
The variety has good resistance to major diseases and pests, but the usual preventive measures, of course, will not interfere.
Video: apricot Triumph north
Planting apricot varieties Triumph North
Of course, the Triumph northern variety is frost-resistant, but in the early years it must be protected from frost, flooding, damping, and hares. It is better to choose a place that is sunny, quiet, protected from the north and northeast by any barriers (house wall, fence, tall trees, etc.), you can protect the seedling with a specially constructed shield for the first years. Apricot soil loves loose, slightly acidic or neutral.
Selection and storage of seedlings
It is better to buy a young seedling, at the age of 1-2 years. The best time to buy a seedling is definitely autumn.... In this case, the gardener himself will lay it for storage - this will give confidence that the planting material was stored correctly.
Proper storage of the seedling is carried out in this way:
- The roots are dipped in a mash made of clay and mullein.
The roots of the seedling are dipped in a clay chatter before being sent for storage.
- Wrap in a damp cloth or burlap.
The roots of the seedling are wrapped in a damp cloth or burlap
- Placed in a plastic bag (do not close tightly). The condition of the roots should be checked periodically - they should not be dry.
- Place it in a basement at a temperature not lower than 0 ° C and not higher than + 5 ° C.
You can also dig a seedling for the winter. Only in this case should it be insulated with something (spunbond, straw, snow, etc.) and protected from rodents.
It is better to plant apricots in early spring, before bud break, but if there is a risk of recurrent frosts, it is better to postpone planting until the time when the soil warms up to + 5 ... + 10 ° C. It could be late April early May. In this case, the seedling should not be taken out of the storage place before planting, so that it does not wake up ahead of time. He should wake up already planted and immediately begin to take root.
Planting pit preparation
The planting pit should be prepared in autumn or spring, then you need to do this at least 2 weeks before planting.
- Dig a hole 70–80 cm deep and the same diameter (it can be square, it doesn't matter).
- The top fertile soil layer is set aside.
- When the pit is ready, it is poured to the bottom, adding:
- 3-4 buckets of humus (can be replaced with compost);
- 2-3 liters of wood ash;
- 300 g superphosphate.
- All this is mixed with a shovel and covered with a film so that the nutrients do not wash out with water.
Planting a seedling
- Get the seedling out of the storage area, inspect it, release the roots, if there are damaged ones, cut them off with a pruner. You can soak the roots for 1-2 hours before planting in water with the addition of a root formation stimulant, for example, Kornevin.
- In the pit, prepare a mound from the nutrient mixture, place a seedling on it, having first straightened the roots and cover it with earth. You need to fall asleep in layers, carefully tamping so as not to damage the roots. The root collar should be deepened by 3-5 cm, and on light soils - by 8-12 cm. At the same time, care must be taken that the grafting site is not covered, it should be at least 5 cm above ground level in order to avoid damping out. If necessary, the seedling can be tied to a support.
If necessary, the seedling can be tied to a support
- Form a trunk circle, water well, mulch. Cut one-year-old sapling at a distance of 50 cm from the ground. If the seedling has branches, they should be shortened by 5-10 cm, leaving no more than 2 buds on each.
You can cut a seedling at a height of 50 cm from the ground
It will be great if your child will plant a tree with you. Surely, he will remember this exciting moment for a long time.
Give your child the opportunity to participate in planting an apricot
Features of care and subtleties of growing
The Northern Triumph variety inherited from the Red-cheeked unpretentiousness in care, so it does not cause any special trouble to the gardener. Basically, it all comes down to watering, feeding and pruning.
Since the Northern Triumph is a drought-resistant variety, it is rarely watered, and if it is lucky with the rains, then this operation is skipped altogether. It is only important to keep the trunk circle loose - this contributes to the supply of oxygen to the roots and allows the plant to absorb rainwater well. If the season is dry, the apricot is rarely watered, but abundantly, only 2-3 times. This is usually done by:
- in spring, after flowering;
- in summer, during the growth of fruits;
- after harvest.
Watering the Northern Triumph apricot is necessary infrequently, but abundantly
Undemanding to watering comes with age. While the tree is young (up to 4–5 years old) and the roots are not yet sufficiently developed, it should be watered regularly, making sure that the soil does not dry out. Mulching with hay, sunflower husks, rotted sawdust, etc., helps a lot in this.
If a sufficient amount of fertilizer was applied during planting, then fertilizing begins somewhere in the fourth year, when the first harvests appear. They feed infrequently - organic fertilizers, such as compost, humus, are applied once every 3-4 years. Application rate - 1 bucket per 2 m2 trunk circle. Every year the tree is watered in spring with mineral fertilizers dissolved in water. For 1 bucket of water add a matchbox of nitrate and 0.5 box of potassium monophosphate. This is the norm for 1 m2... If the soil is dry, the tree should be watered before feeding. In the fall, before digging, superphosphate is sprinkled on the surface of the trunk circle previously cleared of weeds and fallen leaves (1 matchbox per 1 m2).
Pruning is the most important part of caring for the Triumph of the North apricot:
- Sanitary pruning is carried out in late autumn or early spring and consists in removing dry, diseased and damaged branches, which are then burned, since they may contain pathogens or pest larvae.
- Supportive pruning is carried out simultaneously with sanitary pruning and consists in shortening by one third of all branches, except for skeletal ones. This promotes the formation of young shoots and, as a result, an increase in the number of flower buds.
- Formative pruning is carried out from the moment of planting to the complete formation of the crown.
The procedure for forming the crown is as follows:
- When planting, a one-year-old seedling is cut 30–40 cm above ground level. At least 3-4 growth buds should remain on it, of which young shoots will grow by autumn.
- In late autumn, when sap flow stops, or in early spring, all branches and the central conductor are shortened by 30–40%, and the central conductor should be 30–40 cm higher than the upper branch.
- If there are a lot of branches, 2-3 of them are chosen the strongest and located one above the other by about 20-30 cm. And they should also grow in different directions. This will form the first tier of skeletal branches. The remaining branches, if any, are cut into a ring.
- In the third year, the branches of the first tier are shortened by a third and the second tier is formed. The principle is the same - choose 2-3 branches located above the branches of the first tier with the same interval and direction of growth. They are shortened so that they are shorter than the branches of the first tier, and the central conductor is cut 30–40 cm above them.
- In the fourth year, the third tier of skeletal branches is formed in a similar way and the central conductor is completely cut out above the uppermost branch. The tree is now complete.
The formation of the apricot crown ends at 4 years
Rejuvenating pruning is carried out when the fruitfulness of the tree decreases, and flower buds practically cease to form on the inside of the crown.
Rejuvenating pruning is essential when tree fertility declines
Diseases and pests of apricot and how to deal with them
Triumph North is resistant to the main diseases and pests inherent in apricots. However, one should not neglect the complex of preventive measures carried out for all plants in the garden.
Such events consist of the following simple actions:
- Collection and destruction of fallen leaves. It is better not to use it for compost, as it almost certainly contains fungal spores, insect larvae, mites, etc. Many of them are likely to survive composting.
- Sanitary pruning as described above. Cut diseased and dry branches are also burned. As a result of these 2 activities, a valuable fertilizer will be obtained - ash.
- In the upper soil layers of the trunk circles, some larvae, beetles and ticks hide for wintering, and there may also be fungal spores. If you dig up the soil under a tree in late autumn, all these guests will be lifted up and die from the frost.
- Autumn whitewashing of boles and skeletal branches with lime will protect from spring burns, block the path to the crown of caterpillars, beetles, ants, carrying aphids to young leaves.
- Whitewashing is not enough to stop insects. Trapping belts installed on the lower part of the trunks can help in the fight against them.
- The autumn tying of the trunks with roofing material will prevent hares from gnawing the bark.
- Some pests and pathogens overwinter in the cracks in the tree bark. This is especially true for older apricots. It is necessary to clean out the dead layers of the bark and treat this place with a 3% solution of copper or iron sulfate. This procedure is carried out twice - in late autumn and early spring, during the absence of sap flow.
- In early spring, preventive treatment with fungicides (preparations for fungal diseases) and insecticides (means for controlling insects) is carried out. There are universal preparations that combine both fungicidal and insecticidal properties - these are DNOC (they can treat plants no more than 1 time in 3 years), Nitrafen and some others.
Probable diseases of apricot Triumph north
Triumph of the North is resistant to diseases such as coccomycosis... Moniliosis is a more likely enemy. Most often, spores of the fungus, which is the causative agent of moniliosis, are brought in by bees collecting nectar during the flowering period.
In spring, moniliosis affects flowers, leaves and shoots.
An inexperienced gardener may confuse a monilial twig burn with frostbite or chemical burn if improper spring chemical treatment.
If favorable conditions arose for the development of a fungus in the summer, it can once again manifest itself, but already as a fruit rot that affects berries. The difference from other types of fruit rot is the chaotic arrangement of black dots on the surface of the fruit.
The first signs of moniliosis on apricot fruits are black dots.
Clasterosporium is a perforated spot. This is also a fungal disease that appears with high humidity.
As soon as characteristic red-burgundy dots are found on the apricot leaves, you need to immediately start treatment against clasterosporium
Potential pests of apricot Triumph north
It happens that pests attack the apricot, which can cause significant damage to the crop and even harm the tree itself:
- Weevils. They hibernate in the bark, fallen leaves and the upper layers of the soil. In the spring, waking up, they climb the trunk and satisfy their hunger. Then they lay eggs in the soil, from which larvae creep out in summer, feeding on young roots.
Weevil beetles eat leaves, flowers, apricot ovaries
- Khrushchev. These are the larvae of beetles, including May beetles, which feed on young roots in the upper layers of the soil in summer.
The beetles feed on young tree roots in the summer.
- Aphid. If in the first half of summer leaves began to curl on the apricot, you need to pluck such a leaf and unfold it. Most likely, there will be aphids, which feed on juicy leaves and produce the sweet mucus that ants love so much. It is they who carry these little pests up on their shoulders, into the crown of the tree.
Aphids on apricot are carried by ants
The descendant of the famous Krasnoshchekov conquers the northern and eastern regions of immense Russia. Without a doubt, this is the best choice for growing in harsh climatic conditions, where it is rarely possible to pamper yourself with a southern sweet berry. Therefore, the northern apricot Triumph can be recommended to the inhabitants of the middle zone, the Urals and Siberia.
Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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For a long time, the apricot was considered an exclusively southern fruit tree that does not ripen and freezes out on the territory of Russia. But in recent decades, breeders have developed such apricot varieties that can be grown not only in the southern Russian regions, but also in colder areas.
One of such varieties that can grow in the middle lane and in other regions with similar climatic conditions is the Northern Triumph apricot - a description and other characteristics of this fruit tree will be given in the article.
Description of the variety and its characteristics
Description of the Northern Triumph variety:
- Wood. The height of an adult tree is 4 m. It is powerful, with thick branches and a spreading crown. The leaves are large, slightly pointed, the edges are finely tubular. The flowers are large, white.
- Fruit. Color - yellow-pink, orange-yellow. There is a red blush of different brightness. The shape is slightly elongated. Weight - 30-40 g. With good care, the weight of the fruit can reach 50-60 g. The taste is pleasant, sweet, the pulp is juicy.The skin is of medium thickness and slightly velvety, sourish in taste. The seeds are large, they can be easily separated from the pulp.
The fruits are securely attached to the branches, if not ripe, they do not fall off even during strong winds. The seeds taste like almonds.
Flowers of Northern Triumph have pistils much longer than stamens. When spring comes too early, flowers may lack pistils - this is due to a shift in natural timing and a lack of heat.
The main agrotechnical characteristics of the Northern Triumph variety:
last decade of July-early August
fruiting - 4-5th year after planting
once every 3-5 years there is a lean season
Place for apricot Triumph of the North
Apricot is a southern plant that responds positively to a warm and bright habitat. Therefore, the North Triumph is suitable for the south or south-west side of the garden, protected from the winds. It should not be a low place where cold air sinks. A small hill, possibly artificially created, is a favorable factor for the growth and fruiting of the apricot tree.
The soil suitable for a fruit plant is light, with good air and moisture permeability, neutral or slightly alkaline with an acidity index of pH 6–7.
A suitable level of soil acidity for apricot is pH 6-7
The root system of the Northern Triumph is not very large - it goes deep into the ground by about 40 cm. Groundwater should not be located closer than this distance.
Description of the apricot Triumph North and other characteristic features of the variety. Is it suitable for growing in the Moscow, Leningrad regions
Apricot Triumph Northern, sometimes found under the names Northern Triumph and Triumph of the North, is a selection hybrid obtained by crossing the Krasnoshekiy and Northern Early varieties. N. Venyaminov.
Initially, zoning was carried out in the Central Black Earth Region. But there this hybrid is rare, losing competition to the sweeter "honey" southern apricots. But the gardeners of central Russia, the Urals and Siberia quickly appreciated the new product. For some reason, the variety has not yet been included in the State Register, but this does not affect its popularity in any way. This is the reason for the difficulties associated with the search for planting material.
Triumph North grows up to 3-4 m in height. The tree is quite powerful, with a wide, spreading crown in the shape of an almost regular ball. Differs in dense foliage and many small branches extending from skeletal shoots.
Triumph North is a powerful and rather tall tree with a spreading crown
The average lifespan of a tree is 25 years. With the help of competent care, it can be extended to 35-40 years. But this is not always cost-effective, since the Triumph Severny takes up a lot of space, and does not bring the maximum possible harvest. The average for old trees is 5-10 kg.
The fruits ripen in the last decade of July or closer to mid-August. It depends on how warm and sunny the summer was. Every year the number of fruits removed increases, reaching 55–65 kg. The maximum possible yield is given by 10-15-year-old trees.
The average weight of one apricot is 40-50 g, some specimens reach 55-60 g. In especially fruitful years, when a lot of fruit ovaries are formed, a slight shrinking of fruits is observed. If, on the contrary, there are only a few dozen of them, they are very large, with a rich taste.
Fruits of an oblong shape characteristic of apricot, symmetrical. When ripe, the skin is bright orange with a "blush" where the sun falls on it. Its hue ranges from pale pink to deep scarlet. The skin is quite dense, sourish in taste, light edge is characteristic. Small yellowish or greenish blotches are normal.
Apricots Triumph North, of course, are not as sweet as the southern ones, but for the Urals and Siberia - very much even nothing
The pulp is very juicy, aromatic and sweet. Gourmets note a light almond flavor. The stone of ripe fruits is yellow-brown, easily separated from the pulp. Her core is edible and also sweet. Of course, Triumph Severny loses to the southern "honey" apricots, which literally melt in your mouth, but for the Urals and Siberia, the taste is definitely on top.
The apricot Triumph Severny even has a bone edible, in folk medicine it is used for the prevention and treatment of cancer
The edible bones of the Northern Triumph are widely used in the food industry. They are added to cake creams, candy fillings and even yoghurts.
Triumph Severny is a self-pollinated hybrid. This means that it bears fruit without the presence of other apricot trees on the site. This quality is especially valuable for owners of standard "six acres".
Growing a hybrid in the Urals and Siberia is possible due to its high winter hardiness. The tree "comes to life" in spring after long winter cold weather, when the temperature drops to -30 ° C and below.
On the Internet, you can find a lot of reviews about the Northern Triumph, from which you can learn about the winter hardiness of the tree, as well as about its yield and growth characteristics. Here are a few reviews about the variety.
The variety turned out to be very successful for the Middle Belt. Even in my northern part of the Moscow region, the variety shows excellent winter hardiness of both skeletal branches and fruit buds that survived -37 this winter. Bloomed for 3 years after grafting on a thorny seedling.
The taste is good, the average fruit size is 40 grams. It is practically not damaged by diseases, but before moniliosis, like other apricots, it is powerless. Sugar is gaining well here. Of course, in terms of taste, it cannot be compared with good southern varieties, but for the Middle Strip it is very good. In comparison with other varieties that grow in me, it is the best.
The triumph of the North does not care about frost at -22, breeds even after -32 degrees.
On a neighboring plot, an apricot of the Triumph Severny variety has been growing for 5 years. A tall, strong tree, this summer about 3 kg of fruits were collected from it, quite large and tasty. In addition to all other advantages, it is also self-fertile. IMHO, this variety is most suitable for our conditions.
Apricot Northern Triumph has proven itself well in parts of Central Russia, as well as in the northern regions. Its high yield, combined with good frost resistance, attracts more and more gardeners to their side, who are convinced that it is possible to grow the southern fruit in those regions where severe winters reign.