Parsnip: planting and care in the open field, growing from seeds, harvesting, storage, photo
Parsnip plant or meadow, or ordinary (lat.Pastinaca sativa) is a herbaceous perennial, a species of the genus Pasternak of the family Umbrella, or Celery. The name of the plant is derived from the Latin word "pastus", which means "food, feed, nutrition." Otherwise, parsnips are called white carrots, white root, field borscht. Homeland of parsnips is the Mediterranean. Parsnip has been known to mankind since time immemorial - mentions of it were found in the works of Pliny and Dioscorides, dating back to the first century BC, and its seeds were found in the Neolithic excavations in Switzerland.
The ancient Greeks and Romans knew this vegetable called "pastinaka", used it for food and for medicinal purposes, and also fed it to livestock. By the middle of the 16th century, parsnips became for Europeans the same familiar and affordable food as potatoes, which displaced parsnips from European gardens, and in the 17th century parsnips appeared in Russia under the name "field borscht". Today, the parsnip vegetable grows wild in weedy places among shrubs in the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe, and Western Siberia. Parsnips are cultivated all over the world.
Planting and caring for parsnips
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - from mid to late April or before winter, at the end of October. Sowing seeds for seedlings - in the middle or at the end of March, planting seedlings in a garden bed - in mid-May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: wet, loamy, sandy loam or peaty, neutral reaction.
- Watering: when grown in moist soil, 4-5 abundant watering is enough in drought, but watering is not needed in a season with normal rainfall.
- Top dressing: 3-4 times per season with mullein solution, ash infusion and liquid mineral complexes: a week after planting and again, three weeks later - with nitrogen fertilizer, and from the second half of July - with potassium and phosphorus fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: caraway moth, striped bugbug, field bug and aphids.
- Diseases: septoria, cercosporiasis, wet bacterial rot, black rot (or alternaria), white and gray rot of root crops.
Read more about growing parsnips below.
Vegetable parsnip - description
The stem of parsnips is from 30 to 200 cm high, erect, rough, grooved, faceted, sharp-ribbed, pubescent and branched in the upper part. Leaves - odd-pinnate, consisting of 2-7 pairs of lobed or large-serrate oval, more or less pubescent leaves, short-petiolate in the lower part, sessile in the upper part.
Parsnip root vegetable, ripening in the first year, white, thick, aromatic and sweetish in taste, sometimes round, like a turnip, sometimes cone-shaped, like a carrot, in the section of a dirty yellow color. Flowers with a yellow corolla - small, regular, bisexual, collected in a complex umbellate inflorescence, consisting of 5-15 rays - bloom in the second year. The fruit of the parsnip is rounded-oval, flattened, dirty yellow droop.
Parsnips are closely related to garden plants such as carrots, parsley, fennel, dill, celery, coriander and lovage. From our article you will learn how parsnips are planted and taken care of, what varieties of parsnips exist for open ground, how to grow parsnips seedlings, what are the dates for planting parsnips in the ground, when to plant parsnips in the middle lane, and also how parsnips are planted and taken care of in the open field.
Growing parsnips from seeds
Sowing parsnip seeds
Growing and caring for parsnips begins with sowing seeds. Parsnips are the most cold-resistant of root crops, so the seeds could be sown simply into the ground as soon as the soil warms up. But since parsnips grow very poorly due to the high content of essential oils in the seeds, it is better, of course, to grow them in seedlings.
Before sowing, large parsnip seeds must undergo special treatment: first they are soaked for a day in warm water, which is changed as soon as it cools down, then the seed is treated with a growth stimulator - Heteroauxin, Epin or Zircon, and only after that they are sown in peat pots filled with soil mixture on peat-based. The substrate can be purchased at the store or made up of garden soil, peat, sand and perlite - the main thing is that it is light and porous. Before sowing, the substrate must be sieved and steamed in the oven or spilled with boiling water for disinfection.
The pots are filled with a damp substrate, compacted so that it is not less than a centimeter below the edge of the container, put 2-3 parsnip seeds in each pot over the surface and sprinkle them on top with a thin layer of substrate, after which the pots are placed on a pallet and covered film.
Growing parsnip seedlings
While waiting for seedlings, lift the film covering the crops for 7-10 minutes daily for airing. Parsnip seeds, as already mentioned, due to the presence of essential oils in them, differ in tightness, so the first sprouts will have to wait at least two weeks. As soon as they appear, the film can be removed, and the pots can be moved closer to the light.
How to care for parsnips during the seedling season? Growing parsnips requires long daylight hours - for the normal development of seedlings, a day of parsnips should last at least 14 hours, so if necessary, be prepared to arrange additional lighting for the seedlings. Watering the seedlings is carried out as the topsoil dries out in the pots. Try not to overmoisten the plants, otherwise they can get sick and even die from the stagnation of moisture in the roots.
Root plants do not tolerate picking well, which is why they are sown not in common boxes, but in separate containers. When the first pair of true leaves is formed at the seedlings, you need to choose the strongest of them in each pot for further growth, and pinch off the rest above the surface of the substrate so as not to pull out the root of a strong seedling by pulling out.
10 days before planting seedlings in open ground, they begin to put them outside for some time every day for hardening, gradually increasing the duration of the seedlings stay in the fresh air.
Planting parsnips outdoors
When to plant parsnips outdoors
Parsnips are planted in open ground in mid-May, when the seedlings are 28-30 days old. At this time, as a rule, return frosts are already behind and the soil has already warmed up enough. Planting parsnips in the Moscow region is carried out at about the same time, adjusted for spring weather.
Soil for parsnips
Give your parsnips a well-sunlit area, although they can grow in partial shade. Wet peat, sandy loam and loamy soils with a neutral reaction are most suitable for parsnips. Acidic soils are contraindicated for parsnips, so they must be lime.
Try not to grow parsnips after plants such as carrots, parsley, celery, parsnips, and other root vegetables, as they all share common diseases and pests. Onions, cabbage, beets and potatoes are considered the best predecessors for parsnips, especially if fertilizers were applied for their planting - parsnips grow better on soils fertilized in advance, therefore, the site for it must be prepared in the fall: the soil is freed from weeds and, if the predecessors are not organic matter was introduced, they dig up a plot with rotted manure at the rate of half a bucket per m² of the plot.
In the spring, before planting seedlings in the ground, the soil is again dug up, leveled and high beds are formed.
How to plant parsnips outdoors
On the bed, holes are made at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other in a row and row spacings are not more than 40 cm. The depth of the holes should be such that the seedling can fit in it along with the peat pot. If you have planted parsnips in plastic pots, water the seedlings before replanting and carefully transfer them from pots to holes along with an earthen ball. Water the garden bed after planting.
Planting parsnips before winter
Podzimny sowing of parsnips is carried out until mid-October in a prepared soil in advance (preferably from spring). Since the seeds of parsnips are large, they are sown in three pieces to a depth of 3-4 cm in holes located at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other with a row spacing of 40-45 cm. ... The emerging seedlings are thinned out in the same way as seedlings - the strongest sprout is left in the hole, and the rest are plucked out. We will tell you about how parsnips are taken care of in the next section.
Caring for parsnips
How to grow parsnips
Growing parsnips in the open field involves performing procedures that are well known to every gardener - watering, loosening the soil in the aisles, weeding and top dressing. Overall, parsnips are surprisingly unpretentious. The first loosening is carried out when seedlings appear or when you are convinced that the seedlings have started. Then the soil is loosened after each watering or rain.
Parsnips are hygrophilous and especially need water at the stage of root crop formation. Due to a lack of water, the leaves of the plant become pale, their growth slows down, and the parsnip can even release an arrow, while the roots crack, become rough, dry and fibrous. And from excess moisture, parsnips can get sick with fungal diseases.
So how do you water a parsnip? If it grows in moist soil, 4-5 abundant watering in dry weather will be enough for it, but if it rains regularly in summer, then it is likely that you will not need to water the parsnips. After watering, it is convenient to loosen the soil in the area and remove weeds. But keep in mind that in hot, dry weather, parsnip leaves give off a caustic essential oil that causes burns, so try to work in the area after sunset or in the early morning.
During the growing season, parsnips are fed 3-4 times. How to fertilize parsnips? Fertilizers should be applied only in liquid form - mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10, ash infusion or a solution of mineral fertilizers. A week or two after planting the seedlings, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers, after another three weeks, nitrogen fertilization is repeated, and from the second half of July they switch to fertilizing parsnips with potassium and phosphorus fertilizers.
However, if you grow the plant in fertile soil, you can do without top dressing, especially if fertilizers were applied during the preparation of the site.
Pests and diseases of parsnip
Parsnip suffers from the same diseases as the rest of the umbelliferae family: septoria, cercosporosis, wet bacterial rot, black rot (or Alternaria), as well as white and gray rot of root crops.
Septoria is manifested by the formation of numerous medium-sized spots on the leaves of the plant without clear boundaries, which gradually darken and become brown-brown. Affected plants turn yellow and dry. Septoria progresses in cool weather against a background of high humidity. The penetration of infection occurs through the stomata.
Cercosporosis can be recognized by irregularly shaped yellowish or dirty-brown spots up to 6 mm in diameter that appear on the leaves and stems of the plant. With the development of the disease, the spots in the middle fade, and the border around them becomes darker. The edges of the affected leaves are raised and slightly curled. On the stems, elongated reddish-brown spots appear impressed. Sick plants lag behind in development, their leaves turn yellow and dry.
Wet bacterial rot - the disease is widespread, especially in conditions of unstable temperature and high humidity. It affects root crops both during storage and in the field. The disease begins with decay in the tail - first, dark watery-oily spots appear on the plant, then depressions with a rotting fetid mass are formed in their place, which flows out of the fruits in the form of mucus, due to which the spread of infection to other plants occurs very quickly.
Alternaria or black rot, develops mainly already in storage: slightly depressed dark spots appear on root crops, on which a dark olive bloom forms in damp weather. In the section, the affected tissues are coal-black in color.
White rot (botrytis) and gray rot (sclerotinia) differ in the color of the plaque that forms on root crops. In case of white rot, the plaque is white, in the form of flakes with black sclerotia of the fungus, and gray rot covers the roots with a gray fluffy bloom. These diseases are most harmful in warm weather with high air humidity.
In order to prevent fungal diseases from infecting parsnips, we recommend you a set of measures, including:
- observance of crop rotation - parsnips can be returned to the site again no earlier than after 3-4 years;
- strict compliance of care measures with the rules of agricultural culture;
- thorough preparation of the site before planting, including the removal of the remnants of the previous culture from it;
- half-hour pre-sowing treatment of seeds in water of 50 ºC temperature, followed by rapid cooling and drying;
- proper storage of root crops.
If, despite the strict fulfillment of all these conditions, a fungus has appeared on the site or in the storage, immediately remove the diseased specimens, and treat the healthy ones with one percent Bordeaux liquid, Fundazol or Topsin-M.
Of the insects, the most dangerous for parsnips are the caraway moth, the striped shield bug, the field bug and aphids.
Caraway moth destroys the testes of parsnips. Its caterpillars penetrate roots, stems and leaves and feed on their tissues. When flowering begins, they entangle the parsnip inflorescences with cobwebs, feeding on stalks, flowers and seeds, after which they crawl back into the stem. In order to destroy the caterpillars, the plants are sprayed with a decoction of tomato tops: 3.5 kg of tops are crushed, 10 liters of boiling water are poured, insisted for two days, filtered and 40 g of grated laundry soap is added to the infusion.
Striped bush bug lives off the juice of young ovaries, and buds, from which they die.
Field bug - a greenish-gray beetle reaching a length of 4 mm. Females lay eggs in plant tissue, and the larvae that emerge from them feed on the juice of the leaves and tops of the parsnip shoots. In places of punctures, the tissue dies, turns yellow and dries, and the toxic saliva of these pests leads to the sterility of the seeds. In a warm area, 3-4 generations of bugs can form during the growing season. You can destroy the field bug and striped shield bugs by Karbofos or Aktellik.
Aphid - one of the most dangerous and at the same time the most prolific pests. She, like bugs, feeds on plant sap, from which they wither, deform and stop developing. In addition, she carries incurable viral diseases. You can fight it with folk methods, or you can use Antitlin, Biotlin, or the same means as in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle - Confidor, to destroy it.
As a preventive measure, it is necessary to deal with weeds, and after harvesting, remove plant residues from the site and dig deep into the soil.
Parsnip harvesting and storage
Harvesting begins in the fall, when the parsnip leaves begin to die off. How to harvest parsnips? Root crops are dug up with a pitchfork, trying not to damage them, as needed, leaving them in the soil until winter - the low temperature only makes the parsnips tastier. Since parsnip tops can burn your hands, wear gloves. Root crops are stored in the same way as carrots - in boxes with sand at a temperature of 0-2 ºC and an air humidity of 80-85%, but they soften from storage in a cellar, therefore, in warm regions where there are no frosty winters, it is better not at all dig out - they winter well in the ground.
Types and varieties of parsnips
There are not so many types and varieties of parsnips in culture. According to the shape of the root crops, the types of parsnips are divided into round and long. Round varieties are easy to care for, and parsnips with long roots require well-developed soil. According to the ripening period, parsnip varieties are divided into early, ripening in 110-120 days from germination, mid-ripening, which will take from 120 to 140 days, and late, ripening in 140 or more days.
We offer you the best varieties of parsnips:
- Round - early ripening variety with a rounded-flattened conical root crop of grayish-white color weighing up to 170 g with a strong-smelling white pulp with a grayish-white core;
- Chef - also an early ripening variety, reaching ripeness in 95-105 days with a small but spreading leaf rosette and a cone-knotted creamy root vegetable weighing up to 140 g, rounded flattened at the base. The pulp is white with a grayish core;
- White stork - an early variety with a smooth white root vegetable weighing 90-110 g with white and juicy flesh of good taste. The variety has good keeping quality;
- Boris - early ripe high-yielding variety with cream-colored cone-shaped roots and aromatic white pulp of excellent taste;
- Hormone - an early ripe variety with white cone-shaped roots up to 22 cm long and up to 5 cm in diameter, completely submerged in the soil. The mass of fruits is 100-130 g, they are used as a side dish in fried and boiled form or as a seasoning;
- Delicacy - mid-early, well-stored variety with rounded root crops weighing from 200 to 350 g and up to 8 cm long with aromatic white pulp with yellowish spots;
- Best of all - mid-early variety with a conical pointed white root vegetable weighing up to 200 g with white, tasty aromatic pulp;
- Petrik - a mid-season and high-yielding dietary variety for universal use, resistant to diseases, with a white conical root vegetable up to 35 cm long and up to 8 cm in diameter with a juicy, dense and aromatic gray-white pulp;
- Gladiator - mid-season fruitful hybrid with smooth cone-shaped white roots and white, aromatic, sugary pulp;
- Guernsey - high-yielding late variety with well-stored root crops weighing up to 200 g and up to 25 cm long with white, aromatic, sweet pulp of excellent taste;
- Student - a late-ripening drought-resistant variety with a high yield, with white cone-shaped roots up to 30 cm long and weighing up to 160 g with white, very aromatic pulp of excellent taste.
In addition to those described, the Serdechko variety and the foreign varieties Hollow Crown, Contess, Javelin and Tender and Tru have proven themselves well in culture.
Parsnip properties - harm and benefit
The healing properties of parsnips
Parsnip contains carotene, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, essential oil, mineral salts, B vitamins (B1, B2, B3). The carbohydrates contained in the root vegetables of the plant are easily digestible, they also contain a significant amount of potassium, which promotes blood circulation, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and improves digestion. The complex of vitamins, micro- and macroelements found in parsnips is similar in composition to that contained in spinach.
Parsnip leaves are rich in essential oils, and in its root there are three times more sucrose and fructose harmless for diabetics than in carrots. The uniqueness of parsnip is that it contains substances that relieve spasms. If you use grated parsnip root correctly and on time, you can relieve hepatic and renal colic.
Parsnip has an expectorant, tonic and analgesic effect, in ancient times it was used as a diuretic for edema, as well as as a means of strengthening the walls of capillary vessels, increasing appetite, and stimulating sexual activity.
Currently, parsnips are used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It has been empirically shown that the furocoumarins in parsnips increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays, and this property has been used to repigment discolored skin areas in vitiligo patients.
Parsnip fruits are used to prepare the preparations Eupiglin and Beroxan, which are used to treat vitiligo and alopecia areata; they are the raw material for the production of furocoumarin pastinacin, which is a vasodilator that is used to prevent angina attacks in cardiac neuroses and coronary insufficiency, as well as in other spastic phenomena.
Our ancestors used tincture of parsnip root on moonshine to whet appetite and improve mood. A water infusion of parsnip root was used to restore strength in seriously ill patients. Parsnip infusions have a sedative effect, therefore they are used for insomnia and neuroses.
Parsnip - contraindications
You can not use parsnips and preparations from it with individual intolerance to the product and photodermatosis - inflammation of the skin due to increased sensitivity to the sun, since parsnips contain substances that make this sensitivity even stronger.
Parsnips are not recommended for older people and small children.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Umbelliferae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants Umbrella (Celery) Plants on P Root crops
Daikon does not need special care. It is enough to irrigate in a timely manner, loosen the soil, remove weeds and apply fertilizers. It is also imperative to spud the Japanese radish, as the roots peek out strongly from the soil.
Watering should be regular and abundant. Due to a lack of moisture, the roots will lose their pleasant taste, become bitter and very hard, and the shelf life will be significantly reduced and an unpleasant odor will appear. It is necessary to water the white radish at least once every 5 days. After each watering, be sure to loosen the soil, but do it very carefully so as not to damage the roots. Weeds should be weeded as needed.
Top dressing and fertilizers
If the daikon is planted in fertile soil, which was fertilized before planting, then there is no need to additionally feed the plant. But if the soil is not nutritious enough, it is necessary to apply balanced complexes of mineral fertilizers for vegetable crops a couple of times per season, which perfectly compensate for the lack of nutrients in the soil.
Parsnips - recipes how to cook it
Raw parsnips are tasted - they are sweeter than carrots, spicy like parsley. The pulp is white, very firm, with a high dry matter content. When you fry it, it browns beautifully, you cannot distinguish it from potatoes in taste, appearance. You can't spoil the soup with parsnips either. In the filling, it is suitable for pies and stuffed peppers. Parsnips make an excellent filler for vegetable marinades and white sauce. For the winter, it can be dried by mixing it with other white roots - parsley and celery.
Here are some recipes I've tried.
- 1 part parsnip
- 1 part carrot
- 1 part onion,
- 1 part red tomatoes
- 1 part salt.
Cut everything, mix well, stand for 1-2 days until the salt is completely dissolved and packaged. You can store it in the refrigerator without even freezing it.
Peel the root, cut into cubes, salt to taste, add onion rings and fry in vegetable oil for no longer than 8-10 minutes. Serve with sour cream.
Cook until soft one carrot, 1 onion, 200 g of parsnips. It turns out more delicious if vegetables are boiled in meat broth, but you can do without it. Remove from broth, mash in mashed potatoes. Dilute with the same broth, pour over the cooked pasta.
Grate parsnips and carrots equally on a coarse grater, add salt, finely chopped onions, leeks. Fry everything in sunflower oil. Combine with boiled rice, stir, fill with red peppers filling. Simmer for 10 minutes in sour apple juice or tomato.
Sauerkraut with parsnips
Chop the white cabbage, grind it with salt and add, as usual, the carrots, and besides them, the same amount of chopped parsnips. Tamp and ferment for ten days, piercing with a sharpened stick.
For 5 kg of cabbage - 300 g of carrots, 300 g of parsnips, 100 g of salt.
Vegetable stew in a skillet
Coarsely chop parsnips, carrots, onions. Fry everything in vegetable oil, salt, add chopped tomatoes, bring to readiness, season with grated garlic.
Boil green beans. Fry the diced parsnips and carrots in vegetable oil. Cut small onions, tomatoes in half, simmer in sour apple juice (instead of vinegar), salt to taste. Lay all this in layers in steamed jars, adding a spoonful of grated garlic to each. Sterilize for 5 minutes, roll up with tin lids. In winter, it goes well with boiled rice.
“Previously, the dahlia was called the queen of flowers. There were no bouquets without them, teachers were always given gifts in the fall. Most of all I like pink ones with a red center. "
“When collecting seeds, I made a mistake - I cut the baskets while still damp. Now the inflorescences have dried up, but the seeds to multiply, I never dreamed of. But I have already bought a lot of annuals for the next season. I'm just in love with dahlias: a little trouble, but such a beauty! "
Hello everyone! Dahlias - planting and care in the open field, growing from seeds, photo varieties with a description and video tips in our material. Dahlias (lat.Dahlia) are from the aster family. These are some of the most beautiful and long-flowering garden flowers, represented by the widest palette of colors and variety of shapes.
They bloom from July until frost. In addition to the variety of forms, dahlias are also distinguished by a variety of colors, and there is even a black dahlia, or rather, red-black, which appeared due to the accumulation of a large amount of anthocyanin pigments in the plant.
ARTICLE IN THE TOPIC: Forcing bulbous flowers at home.
The shapes, colors and varieties of dahlia are so diverse that they can be used to decorate not only flower beds, but also border lines, as well as as salt, even potted, plants. Dahlias are dazzlingly beautiful, but at the same time they are completely unpretentious.
The main thing that is required for their successful growth and lush flowering is to choose the right planting site, provide the necessary soil composition, timely watering and feeding.
You need to buy seedlings not earlier than mid-spring, and the tubers should be fleshy and strong, with already noticeable, but not tall sprouts. It is better not to take soft or dry tuber.
Types and varieties of bindweed with photos and names
There are few types of garden bindweed. The ones that are most popular will be described below.
Bindweed Moorish (Convolvulus sabatius = Convolvulus Mauritanicus)
This ornamental plant is usually grown in containers or hanging baskets. The length of the stems is about half a meter, they are covered with delicate leaf plates of a greenish-gray color. As a rule, flowers in this species have a pale lilac color.
Bindweed (Convolvulus bicuspidatus = Convolvulus fischerianus)
The homeland of this bindweed is Siberia, Asia and the Caucasus. It prefers to grow along sandy river banks, on dry mountain slopes, as well as in mountain steppes. The length of slightly curly recumbent, ascending shoots varies from 0.3 to 0.4 m. The arrow-shaped leaf plates can be pubescent or glabrous, the length of their petioles is from 30 to 70 mm. Single pink flowers flaunt on long peduncles.
Bindweed tricolor (Convolvulus tricolor = Convolvulus minor)
This densely branched herb is an annual and native to the western Mediterranean. There is pubescence on the surface of the ascending creeping shoots. Sessile, whole-edged linear-lanceolate leaf plates are pointed, greenish, slightly rough or glabrous. The axillary flowers reach about 40 mm in diameter, their shape is correct, funnel-shaped, and the pedicels are short. Their throat is yellow, the middle part is white, and the limb of the corolla is deep blue. This species has several forms with pink, purple, blue-purple, white or blue flowers. There are also several varieties:
- Crimson Monarch - the color of the flowers is crimson
- Royal Ensign - the length of the stems is about 0.45 m, in dark blue flowers the pharynx is golden
- Blue Flash - the height of the bush is about 0.25 m, the flowers are blue.
The star bindweed, also called the morning glory Mina Lobata, or the Spanish flag, or the lobed kvamoklit is a vine, but it is not a bindweed.