What are pesticides. Types and uses of pesticides
How to protect plants from pests, diseases and weeds. Part 2
At the beginning of this year, the first of a series of articles on plant protection using chemical, biological, and herbal preparations was published. This article will focus on pesticides and how they are used.
What are pesticides
Unfortunately, sometimes an erroneous opinion arises and is cultivated in the press that pesticides inflict a toxic blow on the biosphere and humans.
Pesticides - these are the same medicinal preparations, but to protect plants from diseases, pests, weeds and other harmful objects. As a rule, they are produced by powerful chemical concerns, which are often also large pharmaceutical companies. They create - synthesize - molecules of a substance, often without knowing whether it will ultimately be a medicine for humans or a pesticide for agriculture. Of course, at some stages of pesticide testing, serious mistakes were made. But in most cases of private practice of gardeners and gardeners, the main problem lies in poor knowledge and accounting of the norms of the drugs used, in the use of low-quality equipment and non-observance of safety measures.
In the past 15 years, the volume of pesticides produced in our country has significantly decreased. So, in 1980, the USSR produced 300 thousand tons of pesticides, and in 1998 - only 16 thousand tons, and on the basis of foreign active substances. As a result, Russian producers found themselves without domestic pesticides: in terms of their availability (about 100 g of ai per hectare of arable land), Russia entered the 21st century as one of the last countries in the world. Potential losses of agricultural products (in terms of grain per year) in our country exceed 100 million tons. As a result of the current situation, we are forced to purchase pesticides or intermediates for their production abroad. By the way, it is believed that over 30% of agricultural products are targeted in the CIS and developing countries of the world, as a rule, from fields intensively treated with pesticides. Let's add: in Japan 17 kg of pesticides are used per hectare, and in Russia - only 100.In the USA, in 1983, pesticides were produced in the amount of 4 billion dollars, in 1993 - by 7.7, in 1998 - by 9 billion dollars (in the world, respectively - 20.5, 27.5 and 31.1 billion dollars). When will we finally understand that it is more practical to buy (and smartly use!) Pesticides, if we cannot invent them ourselves, and not grain!
Every year the range of drugs allowed for the control of pests, diseases and weeds in agricultural production is expanding. From among them, experts choose the safest pesticides allowed for use in household plots against harmful objects. Moreover, this is done after a thorough check on a large set of agricultural crops, since the active substance of most of them are substances to a certain extent harmful to human health. So, the composition of chemical pesticides can include phosphorus, organochlorine and other toxic compounds. Being a reliable means of protecting agricultural crops against pests, weeds, diseases, this group of drugs has a more severe destructive effect than biological ones.
Types of pesticides
Recall that, depending on the harmful organisms, pesticides are divided into several groups:
- herbicides (used against weeds),
- insecticides (against insects),
- fungicides (against pathogens),
- acaricides (against ticks),
- rodenticides (against rodents),
- nematicides (against nematodes),
- ovicides (to kill insect and mite eggs),
- insectoacaricides (simultaneously from harmful insects and ticks),
- insectofungicides (simultaneously from harmful insects and fungal diseases),
- chemosterilants (for sexual sterilization of pests),
- defolliants and desiccants (desiccating or dehydrating the connective tissue of plants),
- pheromones (attractive sex compounds for harmful insects),
- repellents (repellent or deterrent substances).
Introduced here growth regulators and surfactants (Surfactant).
Biostimulants such as epin, zircon, gibberellin and heteroauxin are designed to increase vitality (resistance to adverse external influences). But they are not a panacea for all misfortunes, they will never replace quality plant care and do not act directly, like fungicides and insecticides, against pathogens and harmful insects.
Depending on the origin, pesticides are divided into chemical, biological (or microbiological) and herbal preparations... But in any case, these modern plant protection products should be effective and non-toxic for warm-blooded animals (i.e., for domestic and wild animals, birds, fish, beneficial insects, and for humans). They should be used in relatively small doses, not have a negative impact on the environment, and quickly decompose in natural conditions into components that are harmless to the environment.
Insecticides act on adult insects (adults) and on various intermediate forms of their development (larvae, caterpillars, pupae, etc.) in several ways. Some of them act positively, falling in the form of solutions on the surface of harmful objects (such drugs are called contact action). Other pesticides applied to plants are absorbed along with the plant tissue, which is eaten by insects, which is why they are called intestinal action. There are insecticides that have a contact-intestinal effect. However, unfortunately, the instructions supplied in the trade network when selling these insecticides do not indicate these qualities. A similar picture is observed in relation to fungicides, which can be in the form of solutions on the surface (they affect the forms of pathogens there) or be absorbed into plant tissues: the former are called contact action, the latter - systemic.
Preparations enter the distribution network in various marketable forms - in the form of liquids (water or emulsions), soluble powders or granules, briquettes or tablets, etc. The most common abbreviations in the instructions issued by the distribution network to the drugs mean: B - briquette, VG and VRG - water-soluble granules, VK (VKR) - water-soluble concentrate, EC - emulsion concentrate, TAB - tablet, etc.
Do not use highly concentrated preparations on garden plots. It is also important to strictly observe all restrictions on their use. If the instructions indicate that the drug can only be used on these crops, it is strictly forbidden to use it on others. For example, in personal garden plots, a drug is allowed for use on potatoes against the Colorado potato beetle. Under natural conditions, it is indicated in the instructions, it decomposes into safe products in 15-20 days. But if it is not recommended for green crops, then it is unacceptable to use it on these plants. In agriculture, it can be successfully used to protect fruit crops, but in our small gardens, when spraying, this must be taken into account, it is quite possible that it accidentally gets on other crops (dill, lettuce, etc.), which poses a certain danger to human health. Therefore, all precautions should be followed during processing.
A huge number of different crops (fruit and berry, vegetable, ornamental, medicinal) are now grown on household plots. Some experienced gardeners and gardeners even plant such plants that are both difficult for conventional cultivation and "unsuitable" due to the climatic characteristics of our Northwest zone.
The diversity of cultures gives rise to a variety of problems. Every gardener and agronomist should not only be proficient in various agricultural techniques for their cultivation, but also be able to provide them with effective protection against the most common pests and diseases. It is clear that the wider the range of crops on the site, the more problems arise, since many plants are characterized by their specific pests and diseases.
Here are a couple of examples. If there is no great need to keep the red viburnum in the garden (after all, you can go to the forest for its berries), it is better to exclude it from the number of cultivated plants: the viburnum affects a huge number of pests that are simultaneously pests of many fruit and berry crops. Brought viburnum - then carefully monitor the appearance and destruction of harmful insects on it. Aronia berries, which gardeners like to plant as protective strips (especially on the periphery of the site), are largely actively populated by the mountain ash moth, which in recent years has been seriously "managing" in the orchards, damaging the apple fruits.
If there is no threat of losing a significant part of the crop, then there is no need to use plant protection chemicals. In the case when plants have already been infected with the causative agent of the disease (for example, potato bushes with late blight) and the disease can no longer be cured, processing it can only be slowed down. In this regard, against phytophthora and a number of other diseases, experts propose to carry out preventive treatments that pre-protect plants from damage by pathogens.
When using pesticides, adherence to processing times is very important.... Spraying with insecticide solutions should be carried out at the most vulnerable stages in the development of insect pests. So, you can fight with currant glass not when its caterpillars have been introduced into the branches of the bush, but when years of butterflies laying eggs are observed. Another example: larvae of the 3rd and 4th instars of the Colorado potato beetle are much more resistant to the action of drugs than the 1st and 2nd ones. In addition, treatment against harmful insects is done when their number is high. The time of spraying from diseases usually depends on the phase of plant development, since the onset of the development of the disease is usually associated with the age of the plant.
At the same time, gardeners and gardeners on their plots grow crops that are under the constant threat of severe damage from harmful insects and pathogens. As a rule, the most "manifested" and expected by us annually diseases and pests are on potatoes and tomatoes - late blight and Colorado potato beetle, on cucumber and onions - peronosporosis, on an apple tree - scab, on various crops of many families - powdery mildew. Pests (fruit weevils, leaf rollers, moths, leaf-eating caterpillars, aphids, herbivorous mites) do not bypass our gardens and vegetable gardens. And we must be ready to give them a worthy rebuff.
Read the third part of the article: Biological method as an alternative to chemical plant protection products
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Microbiological Protection, VIZR
Are pesticides poisonous to the environment?
Academician of the RAMS G. G. Onishchenko:
Is it possible to find a reasonable compromise - to use pesticides and not harm health?
- First of all, let's figure out what pesticides are. By definition, these are chemicals that exhibit toxic (biocidal) properties. The word itself has Latin roots: "pestis" - an infection and "cido" - I kill. Pesticides are used to control pests and diseases of plants and animals, weeds, to regulate plant growth, pre-harvest drying and removing leaves. We can say that this is a human weapon, with the help of which he "fights" for the crop with competitors - insects, weeds or pathogenic fungi. Depending on who or what certain pesticides are directed against, several classes of them are distinguished. These are insecticides - preparations for the destruction of insects, herbicides - to kill weeds, fungicides - to protect plants from fungal diseases, and so on.
All pesticides are toxic to some form of life. But how harmful are they to humans?
- I am a doctor by education, and I still consider my first professional commandment - “do no harm”. After all, a medicine can cure, and maybe kill, the question is in the dose and method of application. The same applies to pesticides. Of course, like drugs, they can and should be used - but only very competently, in strict accordance with the instructions, and only those that have passed the state registration.
It must be admitted that the first pesticides had a number of shortcomings - simply because they were the first, and their creators could not answer questions that were not even posed at that time. Therefore, these drugs, sometimes with relatively low efficiency, were very toxic not only and not so much for insect pests or plant pathogens, but for humans and the environment. Moreover, such substances as, for example, DDT, slowly decomposed in natural conditions, entered food chains, accumulated in them, and this sometimes led to dire consequences. Finally, we must not forget that many pesticides and chemical toxic substances are generally close relatives. An example of such a relationship is organophosphorus compounds, but some pesticides of this class are still approved for use as biocidal agents.
However, since then, scientists have created drugs of a new generation. Their efficiency is sometimes orders of magnitude higher than that of their predecessors. To minimize the potential danger to humans and the environment, pesticides are now targeted. This means that at the recommended concentrations they are low-toxic for humans, and for the target organism, they are already deadly. Another way to reduce harmful effects is to use compounds that rapidly degrade in the biosphere. Most of the new generation drugs have both of these qualities.
But how can you ensure the safe use of pesticides? After all, the owners of personal subsidiary farms do not have special knowledge and skills?
- Unfortunately, no one ever checks how summer residents use or store certain pesticides. But, judging by the results of inspections of collective farms (and they are just checked regularly), there are problems - after all, after all, as Woland said in Bulgakov's work, people are people. And in large farms, the situation with the storage of pesticides, as well as with the disposal and disposal of those that are no longer suitable for use, is extremely difficult, if not monstrous.
Pesticides are often stored in completely unacceptable conditions. A significant part of the warehouses is in an unsatisfactory condition and is not guarded, in other words, pesticides are piled up in a heap in half-destroyed sheds, on which, not only locks, and sometimes there are no doors. Moreover, it is often completely impossible to find out what exactly and where is stored in the warehouse - the labels are lost, the inscriptions are erased.
For owners of subsidiary farms, the picture is often the same. Purchased long ago and already unusable pesticides are lying in the corner or on the far shelf in the shed, in torn bags, and the owner himself does not remember for a long time what is there.In the end, he either uses them, as they say, “as God puts on his soul,” or simply throws them into the trash one day, not caring at all that this can cause irreparable harm to himself and the environment.
Another very important problem is that people use the same, familiar and familiar pesticides. Now the assortment of these agrochemicals is very large, there are hundreds of names, but those few whose names have long been “heard” are bought and used in the old fashioned way.
Why can't you use the same drugs all the time?
- On the one hand, it has a negative effect on the environment and, accordingly, on humans. Poisonous chemicals accumulate in food chains, and pests adapt to them and cease to notice - like a cockroach from a joke that feeds on dust. On the other hand, the advantages of new drugs, which are more effective and less dangerous both for humans and for the environment in general, are not used. As a result, where it would be possible to get by with small amounts of a highly targeted pesticide that quickly decomposes into relatively harmless compounds, gardens and orchards continue to be treated with huge quantities of chemicals that, as they say, kill all living things. This is, of course, a metaphor, but the essence of the matter is just that.
That is why it is so necessary to conduct extensive explanatory work among the population on how to properly use, store and dispose of pesticides. In other words, one must not be lazy to persistently and constantly explain to people how to correctly use these, of course, useful, but unsafe chemicals, how to use them so that you can get a good harvest, and not harm yourself, your beloved, and others.
Unfortunately, there are two polar opinions about pesticides. One of them is excessive caution, fear of “all chemistry”. But, as we have already said, this position is not constructive - it looks like a principled refusal to take any kind of medicine for a disease. You can, of course, do without pesticides and grow a small amount of vegetables, flowers and fruits on your garden plot (some will survive in any case), but why give up the opportunity to protect the crop?
At the other extreme, there is a “devil-may-care” attitude towards the potential danger of pesticides both for the person himself and for his environment. And the point here is not only that managers of large farms and amateur gardeners habitually rely on "maybe". Unfortunately, irresponsible assurances from time to time appear in the press that modern pest control methods are not at all dangerous - like table salt or even less.
And if the first extreme threatens only with the loss of part of the crop, then the second is much more dangerous. That is why we again and again draw the attention of the population to the fact that when using pesticides it is necessary to observe what is called the boring words "safety precautions". Otherwise, the consequences can be disastrous, and the price of cucumbers-tomatoes from your garden will be clearly too high, since the amateur gardener himself, and his children, and neighbors will have to pay for the frivolity. Pay in the literal sense of the word with health, and sometimes with life itself.
What are the basic rules to follow when working with pesticides?
- So, the first thing a person does is buy pesticides. Now is the time for that. Spring, seedlings on the windowsill warms the soul, pests wake up after hibernation and are ready to pounce on their favorite garden and vegetable garden. It's time to stock up on protective chemicals. How can this be done correctly?
The main thing is not to buy them anywhere: along roads, in electric trains and other questionable places, from random people. You only need to go to the shops, and even there you must be vigilant.
Please note that all drugs intended for retail trade (and therefore allowed for use by individuals) must be in the manufacturer's packaging and packaged in small portions (no more than the amount required for the treatment of 0.1 ha) ... By the way, the label, like the instructions for use, must be mandatory, and on each package. Of course, the packaging must be intact and the expiration date is in order. Otherwise, there is a high risk of buying either a low-quality pesticide, or one that can only be used by specialists.
There is a list of pesticides permitted for use, and, depending on the potential threat to humans and the environment, they are divided into groups, or classes. There are four such groups in total, and private citizens who do not possess either special knowledge or equipment are allowed to use only the least harmful compounds - those belonging to the third and fourth hazard classes. Such drugs are indicated in the list with the letter "L". Of course, this list - the State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use on the Territory of the Russian Federation - is constantly updated. New chemicals appear, and after appropriate verification (whether the use will harm humans and the environment), they are entered into the appropriate section of the catalog. On the other hand, some drugs are deleted from the catalog if research reveals their danger. Therefore, in a store that protects its reputation (as well as a license and, accordingly, money), you are unlikely to be sold a pesticide that is not in this list of drugs approved for use by individuals. Of course, it is best to have this list yourself - especially since we recently released it with a circulation of 10,000 copies. In this case, the rule “trust but verify” is as relevant anywhere else.
There are other "pitfalls" that are easy to get around if you know how to just follow simple instructions. What are they?
So, you bought the drug and are confident in its quality. It's time to put it into practice. Of course, the main and first thing you should do is to carefully study the instructions (as we say - regulations) and follow them exactly. It contains all the necessary information and how to use the drug correctly, that is, the consumption rates, concentrations, the frequency of processing and the necessary safety measures are indicated, including the time that must be waited after applying pesticides before proceeding with other gardening activities. garden work on this site. There is no need to show initiative - here it is superfluous. Better to follow the directions meticulously - then the treatment will be both effective and not dangerous.
Further, it should be remembered that it is possible to treat the beds with pesticides only in the morning (before 10 o'clock) and in the evening (after 18), in calm or almost calm weather. Even a slight breeze must be taken into account - because of it, the chemical can get into the neighboring area or, even worse, people. The greenhouses should be treated with pesticides after you have already done the rest of the work in it - you have weeded everything, spud, tied up, and so on. After processing, the greenhouse must be closed with a lock, a warning sign is hung up and in no case are they included in it until the end of the processing period specific to each drug.
Prepare any tools you may need in advance. I must say that the common misfortune of all owners of personal subsidiary plots is that when working with pesticide solutions, they use a variety of, sometimes completely inappropriate devices: hand sprayers, hydraulic controllers, brooms, brushes, and so on. In fact you can only use knapsack sprayers, and with a boom no shorter than 1.2 m, so that drops of solution do not get on the skin, eyes or respiratory system.
In addition, special clothing is needed to work with chemicals - best of all, a cotton robe, trousers or overalls, leather or rubber shoes, a hat or cap, rubber gloves and, if specified in the instructions, glasses and respirators. It is important to store all this equipment separately from the rest of the clothes and not be lazy to wash every time after working with pesticides, moreover, with laundry soap. Anything that cannot be washed should be properly wiped with soapy water and then rinsed with clean water.
So, you get to work. To do this, first, in most cases, the drug is diluted with water. Of course, this is also done strictly according to the instructions, and the main thing is in special dishes, in no case in food... You cannot smoke, eat or drink during work - however, if you are equipped according to the rules, you will not succeed. It is important to make sure that the chemical is delivered strictly to its intended purpose - and not to you, neighbors and nearby beds that do not need treatment. In general, it is better to cover the latter with polyethylene, as, incidentally, and water intake columns, if they are located in the area of possible drift of the drug. You can work only one hour - no more.
It is prohibited to use protective equipment for processing crops eaten in the form of greens (onions, dill, lettuce, parsley, green peas, etc.), except for the treatment of seeds and soil before germination.
In order to protect bees from the effects of pesticides, it is necessary to isolate them by any possible means for up to 5 days. In cases where the hives remain in the apiary, the entrances are tightly closed, a store with four to five frames of honeycombs is placed above the nest, covered on top with wire mesh or canvas and closed with a lid. To create ventilation between the lid and the sacking, two slats are placed on the windward side. In the morning and in the evening, they replenish the supply of water, which bees in a closed hive use in an amount of 3 liters per day. At the end of the isolation of the bees, the landing board and the front wall of the hive are washed with soap and water and the nests are brought back to normal working condition.
After work, it is best to shower, rinse your mouth and change clothes, and thoroughly wash and wash equipment and tools that have been in contact with the pesticide. At the same time, to wash the inventory, either table vinegar is added to the water, or a soap and salt solution is used. Dirty water must be poured into a specially dug hole, away from wells - at a distance of at least 15 m.
By the way, although metal or plastic pesticide jars are sometimes very beautiful and seemingly convenient, it is by no means possible to use them for domestic needs, and even more so to store water, food or fodder in them. Paradoxically, this happens - pesticide containers can sometimes be seen in the most unexpected places.
What to do with unused pesticides? They can be left in storage, but with care. First, each package should be carefully closed, with a label and instructions on it. Various pesticides are not dumped “in bulk” on the floor in the barn, and even more so under the open sky. They are neatly laid out on the shelves of the utility room, in places inaccessible to children and animals.
Unsuitable pesticides, residues of unused solutions, water after washing the apparatus must be drained into a pit at least 50 cm deep, away from the well, and covered with earth. The dishes in which the solutions of pesticides were prepared cannot be used for cooking food and feed. Paper containers freed from pesticides are burned, glass containers are broken and buried in specially designated places. It is strictly forbidden to use containers from pesticides (even neutralized ones) for storing food and drinking water.
Now it is important to maintain the required "waiting period", that is, the time from processing to the moment when the crop can be harvested. You have done everything in your power to ensure that the pesticide helps you get a good harvest and does not cause any harm.
Pesticide hazard classes
Depending on the degree of danger to humans and animals, as well as on toxicity, a hygienic classification of pesticides has been created. It is based on the toxic effects of pesticides on experimental animals (rats), and is determined in milligrams per 1 kg of live weight. According to this principle, pesticides are divided into four groups:
- strong - LD50 - up to 50 mg / kg
- highly toxic - LD50 - from 50 to 200 mg / kg
- moderately toxic - LD50 - from 200 to 1000 mg / kg.
By the principle of action on organisms
There are pesticides of continuous (general destruction) action (herbicides destroy both weeds and cultivated plants) and selective (selective) action - herbicides kill weeds, but do not harm cultivated plants.
By the spectrum of action
Pesticides are of a narrow spectrum of action (they act only on certain species or groups of weeds) and a wide spectrum of action (they act on weeds of different types or groups).
Depending on the purpose and area of use, pesticides are divided into groups:
- Acaricides - used to combat ticks
- Algicides - destroy vegetation in water bodies
- Anthelminths - fight parasitic worms of animals
- Anti-resistants - additives that reduce insect resistance to certain substances
- Antiseptics - to protect wood and other non-metallic materials from destruction by microorganisms
- Arboricides - to combat unnecessary shrubs
- Attractants - to attract insects
- Aphicides - fights aphids
- Bactericides - used in the fight against bacteria and bacterial plant diseases
- Gametocides - substances that cause weed sterility
- Herbicides - for weed control
- Desiccants - for pre-harvest drying of plants
- Defoliants - for removing leaves
- Zoocides - to combat harmful animals
- Insecticides - to combat harmful insects
- Insectoacaricides - to combat harmful insects and mites
- Larvicides - for the destruction of larvae and caterpillars of harmful insects
- Shellfish or limacids - to fight shellfish
- Nematicides - to combat roundworms
- Ovicides - used to kill mite and insect eggs
- Seed dressers - for pre-sowing seed treatment
- Raticides - for fighting rats
- Plant growth regulators - affect plant growth and development
- Repellents - to repel harmful insects
- Retardants - for inhibiting plant growth
- Rodenticides - for rodent control
- Synergists - substances that enhance the effect of pesticides
- Pheromones - to affect individuals of the opposite sex
- Fumigants - used to combat plant pathogens
- Fungicides - used for plant diseases.
How to determine if food contains harmful substances
If the skin is glossy, and the fruit or vegetable itself looks like a cover ... Most likely, it has been processed with compounds that allow it to stay fresh longer. More often than not, preservatives are not safe on their own. But besides this, they keep harmful substances, including pesticides, on the surface of the fruit.
It is also worth abandoning clearly out-of-season products - it is highly likely that a large amount of fertilizers contributed to their ripening during off-hours.
What to look for
In cabbage all harmful and dangerous substances are deposited in the stalk and upper integumentary leaves. Part with them without regret.
In potatoes more of them are contained under the skin and in the middle of the tuber.
In eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini cut off the stalk along with a small part of the vegetable itself, both pesticides and nitrates are concentrated in it. In cucumbers, pay attention to the color, too dark shades of green indicate chemical feeding.
In dill, parsley, salad and other greenery, all toxins accumulate in the veins and stalks. Pluck the tops of the leaves, discard the stalks. And before use, hold the greens in salt water.
In tomatoes a signal of a large accumulation of harmful substances says the cut. Cut the tomato into two halves, if a thick white vein goes into the vegetable from the stalk or the middle of the flesh is white - this indicates the content of harmful substances. The second indicator that a tomato was chemically fed is a thick skin. In addition, unripe tomatoes are also harmful to health, let them ripen.
In grapes it is difficult to determine the presence of chemistry by its appearance. But to store it, the berries are treated with a fungicide, so you need to wash it very well before eating.
In a watermelon, it is also necessary to examine the cut. If you see thick yellow and white streaks in the cut in the pulp, do not buy it. There is another way to determine the accumulated poisons and nitrates. Place a piece of watermelon in a glass of water, if the water starts to turn pink, then there is a concentration of chemicals in the pulp. If it just dimmed, then everything is fine.
In apples and pears pay attention to the appearance. Glossy, slippery or sticky fruits are top-treated with Definil for long-term storage. After washing, such fruits must be peeled (cut off the peel from them).
In carrots, radishes, beets cut off the tops and ends of the root vegetables after washing. If there are greens on the carrots, they must be removed.
What are pesticides, are they plant protection products?
Pesticides are natural or synthetic substances used mainly as plant protection products.
The most common classification of pesticides is their division depending on the direction of use:
- Zoocides - zoocidal agents for combating wild animals
- Insecticides - for insect control
- Rodentcides - rodenticides for rodent control)
- Molluscicides - molluscicidal agents against snails
- Nematocides - nematicidal agents for the fight against nematodes
- Larvicides - larvicidal agents for combating insect larvae
- Aphicides - aphicidal agents for the fight against aphids
- Acoricides - acaricidal agents for the fight against ticks
- Ovicides - means for the destruction of insect and mite eggs
- Fungicides - fungicidal agents for combating diseases caused by fungi
- Bactericides - bactericidal agents for fighting diseases caused by bacteria
- Herbicides are herbicides for weed control.
Growth regulators are drugs that stimulate or inhibit the life processes of plants:
- Desiccants - means for drying plants; desiccants are sold mainly to farms who willingly buy them to speed up harvesting by machines
- Defoliants - means to accelerate leaf fall
- Deflorants - means for removing excessive amounts of flowers.
- Atrkatants - insect pest control agents.
- Repellents are preventive measures to scare off arthropods.
Pesticides: description of the chemical
The fact that crops give a bountiful harvest, subject to special processing, was guessed back in the 9th century BC. Mankind fumigated plants with sulfur, which increased productivity at times. The smoke of this substance scared away insects and aphids. We can safely say that it was at this time that the history of the modern pesticide began. Over time, it improved and in 1939 the first, full-fledged chemical product appeared.
True, it was more likely intended for etching malaria mosquitoes, but the essence remains the same - it was the first pesticide. It was invented by P.G. Müller, for his development he received the Nobel Prize at one time. This drug has saved many lives, but, unfortunately, decades later, it took the lives of animals and ruined a lot of vegetation. The pesticide was called DDT and is now banned in all developed countries. Since the time of Müller, the chemical industry has developed and began to produce less aggressive products that do not cause serious harm to human health and other warm-blooded animals.
A pesticide is a chemical used to kill or suppress plant pests, parasites, diseases, fungi, weeds, and infections.
Thanks to this tool, humanity has the opportunity to collect a bountiful harvest and store it for a long time. According to some reports, if the use of pesticides is stopped, yields around the world will decrease by 50%, which, of course, no state can allow. Thus, the use of chemicals in horticulture and agriculture is generally considered normal. Competent and reasonable use of drugs will allow you to grow a good harvest. The main thing is to use the pesticide for its intended purpose and in small quantities, it is better less often than more often.