Aucuba: home care, reproduction, transplant, types, photos
Aucuba (lat.Aucuba) - a genus that belongs to the Garriev family. The genus includes only 3 species, and only two of them are grown indoors - Japanese and Himalayan aucuba. Plants are very shade-tolerant and can grow in deep shade (except varieties with variegated leaves).
Representatives of the genus are perennial evergreen shrubs. The leaves of the aucuba are leathery, the flowers grow in bunched inflorescences, red-brown in color. In natural conditions, the plant grows in Korea, China and Japan. It is also found under the popular name "Golden tree" or "Sausage tree".
Quite a lot of different forms of aucuba have been bred, the leaves of which are covered with either large or small spots of yellow shades. There are also species with green leaves along the edge, and yellow with a torn outline in the middle. After the leaf dies off, it turns black. Aucuba leaves are used in folk medicine.
Briefly about growing
- Bloom: in room culture, it rarely blooms, but under favorable conditions in February-April, inflorescences that do not differ in attractiveness can form.
- Lighting: any: from bright diffused light to deep shadow, however variegated forms, when grown in the shade, lose their pattern.
- Temperature: in spring and summer - 18-20 ºC, in autumn and winter - 10-14 ºC.
- Watering: from May to August - plentiful, as soon as the topsoil dries up, the rest of the time watering is moderate to scarce.
- Air humidity: common for living quarters, but in winter the aucuba needs to be sprayed.
- Top dressing: from the beginning of March to the end of August - once a week, alternating organic and complex mineral dressings. Fertilizers are not needed in winter and autumn.
- Cropping: in March, the plant is formed, and young shoots are pinched.
- Transfer: in March, until the age of five - every spring, later - as the roots fill the pot space.
- Substrate: 6 parts of clay-sod land, two parts of leaf and peat and one part of sand.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: spider mites, mealy and cochineal bugs, whiteflies, thrips and scale insects.
- Diseases: rot and black spots on the leaves.
- Properties: all parts of the aucuba are poisonous!
Read more about growing aucuba below.
Aucuba care at home
Indoor aucuba is a shade-tolerant plant, and even shade-loving. It grows well in deep shade, but it does not lag behind in growth even in bright light, you just need to provide diffused light. For forms with variegated leaves, the lack of light causes them to fade and lose their pattern, therefore, windows on the north side are not suitable for them.
In spring and summer, the aucuba at home should be kept at temperatures between 18-20 ° C, since at higher temperatures the plant quickly "wears out" and can shed its leaves. In winter, the optimum temperature is considered to be 10-14 ° C; higher temperatures will require frequent spraying and, most likely, additional bright lighting, since in the absence of these, the aucuba will shed its leaves. In warm summer weather, the aucuba can be taken outside, but you need to provide protection from precipitation, drafts and direct sunlight on the leaves of the plant.
Watering the aucuba
Indoor aukuba is watered abundantly from May to August, allowing the soil to dry out on the surface, but the rest of the time you need to use the rule “it is better to underfill than to pour”, since prolonged waterlogging of the soil leads to the appearance of black spots on the leaves and loss of decorative effect.
Spraying is required only in the autumn-winter period, especially when growing an aucuba plant in a room with central heating. However, if the plant is kept at low temperatures, it must be sprayed carefully to prevent the appearance of mold. In summer and spring, spraying is not necessary and can be omitted.
Fertilizers are applied alternately organic and mineral every week at a standard concentration from the beginning of March to the end of August. In winter and autumn, feeding is not carried out, since the plant is in a dormant period.
Pruning is carried out in March, at the same time, young shoots are pinched, which will contribute to the formation of a thick and beautiful crown. Cut off apical shoots are used for propagation of the aucuba by cuttings.
They take wide pots for transplanting, and a drainage layer must be poured onto the bottom so that excess water does not stagnate, since waterlogged soil causes black spots on the leaves. The soil is made up of six parts of clay-sod land, two parts of leaf and peat land and one part of sand are added. Another option for the substrate: two parts of sod land and one part each of sand, humus, peat and leafy land. Aucuba flower needs to be transplanted annually up to 5 years of age, and older specimens are transplanted if the roots have completely filled the pot. It is better not to transplant, but to cross the aucuba so as not to damage the roots.
Growing from seeds
Aucuba can be propagated by seed, but for this you only need to sow freshly harvested seeds, since their germination is lost very quickly. Seeds can be obtained if there are two heterosexual plants and artificial pollination is carried out. The seeds are sown in moistened peat, covered with glass or plastic wrap and placed in a warm place, from time to time moistening the soil and ventilating the container. Seeds germinate for a long time. When the sprouts have three or four leaves, the seedlings dive into the soil, which is made up of two parts of sod land, two parts of humus with the addition of one part of sand. It should be borne in mind that varietal characteristics may not be transmitted when propagated by seeds.
Propagation by cuttings
For propagation by cuttings of aucuba, only last year's apical shoots are suitable. The stalk must have at least three leaves in order to root well. The cuttings are rooted in a mixture of peat and sand, or simply in sand. The container with the planted cuttings is placed in a warm place and covered with foil or glass. The container with cuttings needs to be ventilated and moistened from time to time, and the temperature should be around 22 ° C. After rooting the cuttings, the sprouts are dived into individual pots with a mixture of sand, humus and turf soil (1: 2: 2).
All parts of the aucuba are highly poisonous, which must be taken into account if there are children or animals at home. After working with the plant, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.
Diseases and pests
Aucuba leaves turn pale. This is caused by too bright lighting.
Aucuba leaves lose their pattern. The reason is insufficient lighting intensity.
Young leaves of aucuba grow small. The plant does not receive the necessary fertilizers, feeding must be carried out in a timely manner.
The aucuba's leaves are falling. This can be caused by both too high air temperature and low humidity.
The lower leaves of the aucuba turn yellow and fall off. This is caused either by sudden changes in temperature or irregular watering - it needs to be corrected.
The tips and edges of the aucuba leaves dry out. This is most likely caused by excessive lighting, lack of moisture in the soil in summer, or increased dry air in winter.
Black spots appear on the leaves of the aucuba. This can happen if the plant hibernates at high temperatures and low humidity.
Aucuba pests. Can be damaged by spider mites, mealybugs, whiteflies and scabies.
Aucuba himalaica / Aucuba himalaica
Representatives of the species are shrubs reaching 4 m in height in natural conditions. The leaves of the species are lanceolate, or elongated-lanceolate, the edge can be either serrated or solid; leaves are dark green, more or less sharply pointed at the top. The flowers are small and not attractive, unisexual, on the same bush, or male or female.
Japanese Aucuba / Aucuba japonica
The genus is represented by evergreen shrubs. Stems are green, lignified. The leaves on the stem grow opposite, glossy, leathery to the touch, with a jagged edge, without stipules, up to 20 cm in length and up to 6 cm in width, elongated-oval; depending on the shape, the leaves can be either green or variegated with a pattern. It blooms with flowers of different shades of red. Flowers are small, unisexual, gather in panicle inflorescences. The fruit is an orange or red berry.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Garrieva family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Shade-tolerant Plants on A Garrieva
Aucuba: views, photos, home care
Aukuba belongs to the Garriev family. In other classifications - Kizilovs, Aukubovs. There are three varieties of this plant. All species are very hardy; in their natural environment they grow in shady places of the subtropical forests of Korea, the Himalayas, Japan, and China. Often there is nothing else besides them. Only two of them are suitable for growing at home - Japanese aucuba (aucuba japonica) and Himalayan (aucuba himalaica).
Types and varieties of nertera
The most common Nertera is Nertera depressa (pressed), this species was found in South America. Its leaves are rather round and small with a bright green color. During the flowering season, white-green flowers bloom on the plant, then small orange berries form.
With good care, the plant can grow up to 40 cm in diameter.
It is considered no less popular Nertera granadensis (Granada), it can be found in large quantities in Mexico or South America.
This species grows up to 50 cm in diameter. The leaves are rather small and round, their length is no more than 8 mm. Nertera blooms with yellow-green flowers, bright orange berries form at the end of the ovary.
Unusual and beautiful is considered Nertera balfouriana, it grows in the lands of New Zealand, where it prefers exclusively wetlands.
This plant differs from other species in the size of its berries, they are larger and have a much more saturated color. The fruit is pear-shaped with a very bright orange color scheme.
Very colorful and small in volume Nertera ciliata (ciliate), in natural conditions it grows well in New Zealand, its growth diameter rarely exceeds 25 cm.
The flowers and fruits of the plant have small cilia, the berries themselves are fleshy and small in size orange.
Everyone's favorite and popular is considered Nertera cunninghamii (Cunningham), native to New Zealand.
It differs from other nerthers in its small size, since it very rarely grows more than 20 cm in diameter. Fleshy berries of bright red color.
All that is needed for Saintpaulia is an abundance of light (but not direct sunlight) and moderate, regular watering. Watering methods can be different:
- under the root - so that no water gets on the leaves.
- into a pallet, while after a while, when the plant has collected the necessary supply of water, it is necessary to drain the remains so that there is no stagnation.
- immersion in a container with water pots with a violet.
Under natural conditions, Saintpaulias grow mainly in the floodplains of rivers, near waterfalls, where there are often fogs and water dust soars in the air.
Therefore, at home, it is better to ensure high humidity in the room for violets: put the pots on the windowsill and fill it with wet expanded clay, sand or pebbles next to the plant, put a container with water or regularly spray Saintpaulia (provided that the temperature in the room is above 24 degrees).
Plants should be sprayed with warm water, whitish spots may appear on the leaves from cold.
If the ground in the violets is very dry, the leaves have sank and wilted, and the substrate has moved away from the walls of the pots, you can immerse the pots in a container of warm water for an hour.
Then put the violet in a shaded area and cover with plastic. The elasticity of the leaves will be restored within a day, after which the film can be removed and the pots placed in their usual place.
Saintpaulia, like almost all indoor plants, does not tolerate drafts and sudden changes in temperature, so in summer it should not be taken out into the garden or onto the balcony.
The optimum temperature for Saintpaulia is between 20-25 degrees. In winter, if the temperature in the room is below optimal, wrap the pots with insulating material.
If you were unable to place violets in a bright place on the northwest, north or northeast side, then create artificial lighting conditions for it. To do this, you can use fluorescent lamps, providing 14-16 hour daylight hours.
Subject to these conditions, the violet will reward you with year-round flowering. However, there is one "but" - the temperature in the room should not fall below 16 degrees.
Caring for the aucuba consists in watering, feeding, forming a bush and ensuring optimal conditions during the dormant period.
In the spring and summer, the aucuba is watered abundantly, but not excessively. Before the next moistening, the top layer of the earth must definitely dry out. The water accumulated in the sump after irrigation is poured out. Compliance with these simple rules will save the plant from the frequent rotting of the root system. Prolonged overdrying of the soil can lead to leaf fall. Watering is reduced in autumn and winter.
Timely and correctly fertilized aucuba will delight you with beautiful leaves with bright colors. Top dressing is applied once a week from March to early September. For this, complex fertilizers are used for ornamental deciduous plants, but once a month the aucuba can be pampered with organic matter - diluted slurry.
A properly fertilized plant will delight you with bright colors
Pruning leaves and shoots
Young plants are advised to pinch the tops of the shoots to stimulate branching. Further formation of a lush and dense crown consists of regular shortening of the overgrown shoots. The procedure is carried out in the spring, and the material remaining after pruning is perfect for rooting.
Blooms from February to April. But in indoor conditions, this is a rare occurrence.
Aucuba flowers are small and inconspicuous
During dormancy, all physiological processes of the plant are suspended, growth slows down or stops altogether. Between October and February, the aucuba should rest in a slightly heated room. We keep the temperature under control within the range of + 8–12 ° С. We water it very carefully so that the earth has the opportunity to dry well, we stop feeding.
To prevent abutilone from drying, not getting sick, not dropping leaves, it should be kept at the correct temperature. It is not always the same, but depends on the season: for example, in summer the plant will feel comfortable at 25 degrees above zero, in winter 12-15 degrees will be enough for it, but certainly not lower, at temperatures below 0 degrees the plant may die.
An important point: in no case should the plant be injured by a sharp temperature drop, this can adversely affect its health.
For all its non-frost resistance and thermophilicity, abutilon does not like excessive heat: if the temperature in the room exceeds 30 degrees Celsius, it will immediately drop flowers and leaves.