How to build a decorative pond in the garden
Read the previous part.? Types of decorative ponds in the garden
How to build a pond in the garden
An ornamental reservoir should have sufficient temperature inertia - plants in it will feel better. In other words, a deep body of water with a small surface of water will slowly heat up, and in cold water, plants will develop more slowly.
True, in such a reservoir fish will feel better (there is more oxygen in cold water). A shallow body of water with a large mirror heats up quickly and cools down quickly, the water in it is warmer, but it evaporates faster.
Taking into account the above considerations, we conclude that the optimal depth of a decorative reservoir for a site (from 6 to 20 acres) should be 0.8-1.2 meters. The optimal shape of the reservoir is shown in Fig.
Several recommendations for those who will create such a reservoir:
- The pit walls have a slight slope - 10-15 °. The water very firmly presses the film to the walls of the pit.
- The bottom of the pit passes into the wall smoothly, with a radius.
- The bottom is flat or slightly concave.
- As noted earlier, on soils with pebbles, cloth, old linoleum, etc. are placed under the film.
- When calculating the size of the film - we make a bend at the top of 0.2-0.3 meters.
We neglect the difference between S and S1, i.e. we consider, for simplicity of calculation, the same cross-section of the bottom and the mirror of the reservoir.
So, let's get to work:
- we determine the place of the reservoir (there must be 8-10 hours of sun a day);
- we determine the geometry of the reservoir mirror;
- we calculate the required area of the bottom film, knowing the depth of the reservoir (from 0.8-1.2 m), the bends at the top (0.2-0.3 m). The film is sold in rolls 4, 6, 8 meters wide;
- to control the correctness of the calculation, you can measure the size of the film using a cord, laying it along the walls.
However, it is more correct to start digging a pit, already having a bottom film.
Laying the film in an artificial reservoir
It is better to dig a pit in the summer, during a dry period. Firstly, it is more pleasant, and secondly, it is lighter, the soil is drier, less water seeps into the pit. The film heated in the sun becomes more elastic. We carefully remove pebbles, sharp roots. You can put old fabric, linoleum and even corrugated cardboard on the bottom and on the edges of the pit.
With the help of assistants, we put the film on the pit and start pouring water. Filling the reservoir, she presses the film to its walls and bottom. Straighten the folds of the film at the top. It is clear that a rectangular or square reservoir forms only four folds at the top, but a round or arbitrary shape has many folds of the film at the top.
The edges of the reservoir are aligned according to the level of the mirror. Do not do this to the nearest millimeter. The level difference can be 2-3 cm. A drain pipe can be placed on one side. It will dump excess water when it rains.
We decorate the top of the reservoir with concrete slabs, wooden dies. The best material is limestone with a thickness of 6-8 cm.
The best water to fill a reservoir is from a clean, transparent natural reservoir, lake, river. The most unfortunate is water from a well. To "revive" it, 20-30 liters of water from a natural clean reservoir is added to the pit, it contains a large number of microorganisms, bacteria, which are immediately taken for cleaning. Bugs and spiders will appear in a few days. Frogs will come to the pond when you plant the plants under which these animals hide during the day.
After a week or two, you can put plants in it - the simplest ones. By the way, in the summer, aquarium plants - kabomba, pistia - feel good in the reservoir. Eichornia, an Amazonian plant, grows well and even blooms.
After a few months, the reservoir becomes alive. Can you even run carp or crucian carp, at the rate of 4-5 fish per 1m? surface. It is necessary to feed the fish, the main thing is that the food does not spoil the water. Crucians are trainable - you can call them to feed with the sound of a bell.
Filling an artificial reservoir with water
But fish is a separate topic. We need a deeper reservoir, three to four meters. You will also need wintering sludge boxes at the bottom, the correct feeding regimen. But, Russian crucian carp lives in a basin ...
Even in European countries, when decorating reservoirs, wild plants are not neglected. I hope that on the banks of rivers, lakes, old canals, you have more than once met such plants as marigold, trollius bathing suit, calla, chastoha, lake reeds, willow loot, forget-me-not, arrowhead ...
Siberian irises, brunner, buzulniks, krasodnevs look organic near water bodies. Very good at decorating host ponds. You can always find 2-3 interesting varieties from more than 4000 varieties and species.
Shrubs will come in handy - viburnum, wolf's bast, willows: silver, basket, red.
A special place in the design of this special place in the garden belongs to grafted weeping forms: willow, apple, birch, elm, mountain ash - with a falling crown they look extremely impressive next to a decorative reservoir.
Family of nymphs
The most beautiful plants for reservoirs are from the nymphaean family. This is the well-known yellow egg capsule and white water lily (nymphea candida). Nymphaeans are all listed in the Red Book, therefore, when transferring these plants to the garden, you should not overuse the amount. My personal experience speaks of a fairly high ability of these plants to adapt to the conditions of small garden ponds.
Artificial pond decoration by vegetation
Decorative forms of nymphs are the result of the selection work of flower growers in France, Germany, USA, Switzerland. This is quite understandable - there is a favorable climate. In our conditions, these plants vegetate from early June to mid-September - only 3-3.5 months.
In a film reservoir, plants are grown in plastic containers with a volume of 8-12 liters. The volume depends on the size of the planting material. It is better to plant aquatic plants in spring, at the beginning of May, when leaves appear on the surface of reservoirs. The soil can be taken from ponds or lakes. There should be clay and sand at the bottom of the container. In nature, nymphs are fixed at the bottom in clay and sand, and their food is obtained from a layer of silt. For us, at first, it is better to hang the plants at a depth of 20-30 cm, in the upper layer of water. As it warms up and the leaves grow back, the bucket with plants can be lowered deeper, and in the summer put on the bottom (our depth is 0.8-1.2 m).
The past season was cold, so in my reservoir I kept the nymphs in the middle layer of water all summer, using a plastic box as a support for the plants. Water, even in a warm period, in a decorative reservoir warms up to a depth of 20-30 cm.
Caring for plants in the summer is easy - harvesting yellow leaves, removing large pond snails. They are very voracious and can harm plants. Flowering begins in July and lasts a month and a half. The development of plants is very dependent on weather conditions: the warmer the summer, the more abundant their flowering, they develop better and will winter more reliably.
In October, the growing season ends. It is necessary to inspect the container with the plant, tear off the remaining leaves, and then the bucket is lowered to the bottom of the reservoir, where it is until the end of April.
In spring, the plant rises from the bottom, large specimens are separated. This is already a way for them to reproduce. Then the whole cycle is repeated.
Water lily, nymphea
Plants can also be overwintered using the "dry" method. They can be placed in a cellar, basement, where the temperature in winter does not drop below +3 ... + 5 ° С. Seed reproduction is unacceptable for an amateur, seedlings bloom for 7-8 years.
It is better to buy plants in spring, so that by autumn they can develop a vegetative mass sufficient for wintering. Plants purchased in the fall are best kept until spring in an aquarium, in room conditions.
A few more notes on plant maintenance:
- nymphs do not like splashes from the fountain on the leaves;
- one nymphea plant needs 1-1.5 m? surfaces, with a thickened planting, the water does not warm up well;
- in cold seasons, local forms feel better. They are less effective, but more stable and unpretentious;
- freezing of the reservoir occurs to a depth of 20-30 cm. The more snow, the thinner the ice.
In nature, in our reservoirs, nymphs and egg capsules are found at depths of 0.5-1.5 m. For reservoirs with a depth of 20-40 cm, dwarf forms can be recommended. They are obtained by hybridization of the Tetragona nymph. Under natural conditions, it occurs south of our region, but slowly moves north. These hybrids have flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm.
The most common varieties are:
- Alba - white form;
- Rubra - red;
- Paul Harriot - coppery pink;
- Marliacea Chromatella - yellow.
Varieties for reservoirs with a depth of 30-50 cm:
- Aurora - pink-orange color;
- Fabiola - white and pink;
- Rosie Arey - pink;
- Holland - red-pink.
Varieties for reservoirs up to 70 cm deep:
- Escarboll - red;
- Leidekery Lilaacea - purple-red;
- Sirius - red;
- Rosea is pink.
Artificial pond in the garden
Shallower depths - the water warms up faster, therefore, dwarf forms bloom faster, develop more actively. Nymphs for great depths (1.2 m) were created with the involvement of nymphs native to Mexico, India, Africa. The flowers are larger, warm water is required, but it is not. Therefore, these varieties, such as the Marlacea Carnea variety, bloom very late, in cold seasons they may not bloom at all.
In conclusion, I will say the following: the device of a decorative reservoir does not require large costs, great labor. But a beautiful pond is a wonderful decoration of the garden.
I wish you success! Go for it!
How to create an artificial reservoir at a summer cottage
Various ways to create an artificial stream at their summer cottage
How to create a pond in the garden
Features of the Scandinavian style
The main feature of such a garden is the presence of a combination of rigor, order, simplicity and functionality. Typical for a Scandinavian garden is:
The garden uses wooden sculptures, stones, gazebos and comfortable benches. A distinctive feature is the many evergreens. The combination of sculptures with shrubs of various shapes gives the landscape an exoticism. The architecture and furnishings of the design are of simplicity and restraint. Scandinavian nature is characterized by harsh climatic conditions, the presence of a large number of stones, snow, short summers and long winters, so plants and decor items should be selected appropriately. Often this style of garden is used for plots that are located in the northern or northeastern regions or in the shade of tall industrial buildings. This style of garden often features stone paths, green lawns, a wild forest area, wood or wicker fences, and dwarf coniferous hedges or borders.
Decorative reed photo
Bulrush (Scirpus) is a genus of annual and perennial plants belonging to the Sedge family (Сureraceae). These plants live in the coastal part of water bodies or in the water itself. It should be noted that plants are often called Reed, which in fact do not belong to the genus Scirpus. These are cattail (most often broadleaf cattail) and reed.
Representatives of the Kamysh genus are common on all continents, however, preference is given to a temperate and subtropical climate.
Reed is a tall plant, a cylindrical or triangular erect stem of which is usually 100-250 cm high. Unlike reed mace, Reed does not have full leaves extending from the stem, but represents only extensive coastal thickets of twigs. The plant can often be submerged in water. The reed has a long creeping rhizome and small flowers (in the form of spikelets), light green, and by the end of flowering - brown in color, which are collected in inflorescences about 10 cm long and bloom in mid-summer.
The number of species (according to various sources) varies from 54 to 300. The most decorative are:
Forest reed (Scirpus sylvaticus) - differs in a three-sided meter stem and umbellate inflorescences of green color, blooming in early summer
Rooting reed (Scirpus rаdicans) - differs from the previous species in curved brown stems
Lake reed (Scirpus lacustris) - characterized by a cylindrical leafless stem, sometimes reaching a height of three meters and differing in green color. Inflorescence is corymbose-paniculate, with brown spikelets. Flowering occurs in May-June. Currently, several very attractive varieties have been bred, for example: "Albescens" (with yellow vertical-striped stems), "Zebrinus" (with green horizontal-striped stems)
Tabernemontana reed (Scirpus tаbernаemontаni) - also has a cylindrical stem, but it grows up to 150 cm in height and is distinguished by a gray-brown color. In some sources, Tabernemontana Reed is noted as a species of Lake Reed
Peaked reed (Scirpus mucronatus) - much lower than the previous species (up to 70 cm), characterized by triangular green stems
Sea reed (Scirpus maritimus) - 55-90 cm in height, characterized by umbrella-shaped inflorescences of brown color
Bristle reed (Scirpus setaceus) is a low-growing annual plant (5-20 cm in height) with thin stems and spikelets collected in a bunch
Reed drooping, or Isolepis, or Kukushkin's tears (Scirpus cernuus) is a houseplant, which is famous for the fact that its stems (up to 30 cm in height) hang down with a lack of light, which makes their appearance resemble a fountain. This plant is distinguished by small milky flowers located at the tops of the stems.
The use of Kamysh in various industries has been known for a long time. The roots of this plant contain starch, the dried rhizomes were previously ground into flour and used in baking bread. Back in the twentieth century, Kamysh was used in construction - they made reed concrete and material for coating walls. To this day, baskets, bags, rugs are woven from dry stalks. Dried shoots look good in bouquets too.
In the garden, Reeds are usually grown near various bodies of water. Their frequent neighbors are egg capsules, water lilies and marigolds. However, Reed is famous not only for its attractive stems and inflorescences, but also for its ability to purify water, which is why it is ideal for planting in the coastal part of ponds or in shallow water.
The drooping reed is most often used as an ampel or ground cover plant.
Secrets of Successful Growing Reed
Since in the wild, Reed lives near water bodies, in the garden this plant should also be grown in moist soil with neutral or weak acidity. Reeds prefer sunny places, but some species can develop without problems in partial shade. It should be remembered that varietal forms are more demanding on growing conditions and in winter they can sometimes freeze without shelter, so it is advisable to grow these plants in containers.
Reeds are grown not only along the coast. Lake reeds and Tabernemontana reeds can be planted directly into the water to a depth of one meter, while other species grow better in shallow water (at a depth of about 20 cm). Reed is a rather unpretentious plant, but it can often grow rapidly (due to the presence of long roots) or multiply by self-sowing, so you need to make sure that the plant does not fill the entire reservoir. In late autumn, the stems of the Reed must be cut off.
Indoor Reed drooping needs more complex care than its wild-growing "brothers". It requires good lighting or partial shade, abundant watering and humid air (be sure to spray the plant with a spray bottle). The pot for the plant should have a tray in which water will constantly linger. Frequent feeding with fertilizers without calcium will not be superfluous.
Varietal forms of plants reproduce exclusively in a vegetative way - by dividing the bush in spring or in September, and specific plants can be propagated by seeds collected from spikelets, and the germination of seeds is very high, even with not very high soil moisture.
With the vegetative method, a bush is dug up, carefully divided into several parts and planted in a permanent place.
Isolepis can also be propagated by seed and vegetatively. However, the seed method is a little more complicated, and the seedlings grow very slowly. Seeds must be sown in a container with a mixture of peat, sand and deciduous humus. The container is placed in a room with a temperature of 17-20 ° C, the seedlings are periodically watered. Then the already matured young plants dive.
Garden forms of Reed, as a rule, do not get sick and are not attacked by pests, but drooping Reed can sometimes cause some trouble. This plant is often eaten by cats, so Isolepis rarely gets along with a mustachioed pet. Also, drooping reeds are sometimes damaged by spider mites and aphids, which are fought with the help of special insecticides.
Isolepis is prone to "baldness" and therefore needs to be transplanted every spring.
For full development, the plant needs at least 50 percent moisture and suitable lighting: with a deep shadow, it stretches and droops, and in saturated light it can turn yellow and dry.
However, providing the Reed drooping with proper care, you will be able to fully enjoy its unusual beauty.
Waterfalls and cascades: Falling water charm
Another option is a waterfall that stretches along the entire site and turns into a picturesque stream with rapids. In this case, even when using pumps, a relief is needed - natural or artificially created from stones on the site with your own hands.
Where to build a waterfall: choose a vantage point
You can place a waterfall on a site in different ways. Where do you want to watch the flowing water from? The waterfall does not have to be adjacent to the terrace or barbecue area - the landscape is much more important. So if you are planning a waterfall on an area (especially a large one), take care of creating a perspective. The waterfall looks beautiful, located on the far bank of the pond and separated from the point of view by the water surface.
Artificial waterfalls on the site: where to get water from?
The most important task that will have to be solved is where the water will come from. The location of the cascade and the volume of construction work depend on the answer. To build a summer cottage waterfall, you will have to choose from three main options.
1. Natural source
If the site has a spring or natural stream, you're in luck. Even less common is a natural source that does not have to be corrected. Indeed, unlike an ordinary pond, which just needs to be strengthened and decorated with plants, a device on a cascade site is impossible without a relief. Therefore, it is important not only the presence of the spring, but also its location.
But even if the spring is on a hill, and the stream is already flowing through the site, you still have to work. Natural springs often look inconspicuous. If you want to achieve a bright, expressive picture and make a waterfall from stones with your own hands, give the jets the pattern and direction you need.
Do not forget to take care of the drainage of the area adjacent to the natural spring. The area around the spring is often swampy due to the release of groundwater to the surface. The optimal way out is to form relief drops and create an artificial stream.
Country waterfall device: choose a style
The style also needs to be determined in advance. It will affect both the choice of materials and the composition of the waterfall. The cascading principle of overflowing jets can be implemented in different ways, so you need to know what kind of waterfalls there are.
Includes natural shapes and materials. The tiered structure and natural stones imitate a natural waterfall. On a rocky area, existing boulders and existing relief can be used - here it is often expressed. The device of the waterfall will solve the problem of the abundance of stones - by collecting them in one place when clearing the site, you will get the elevation necessary for the cascade. Before collecting stones, dig out a bowl and run water. And by collecting boulders in one place, form the necessary ledges. It is also worth immediately fixing the structure with concrete.
To create the illusion that the site takes up more area, then abandon straight lines in favor of smooth, winding paths. To enhance the effect, lay the paving in a diagonal direction using small tiles in contrasting colors. If you want to make the area visually wider, then lay the paths across.
One of the tricks is winding paths
If you plant trees so that they cover the fence, you will get the impression that there is something else there. Your garden will appear larger by planting plants of different size and color. While the plants are being picked up, the lawn takes over. Use available vertical surfaces for landscaping.
Flower lovers arrange flower beds even on the roofs of buildings.
Although 6 acres is not so hot, it should still be divided with objects that will attract attention. For this, use a flower garden, an arch entwined with flowers, a lamp of an unusual shape. Its diffused light in the evening will create the illusion of a fairy tale and allow you to safely walk in your yard. For safety, it is very important that the pool or pond is illuminated. Shrubs and flower beds can also be highlighted. In general, lamps are a powerful technique that changes the look of any area.
If you don't have enough space for flowers, then plant them in flowerpots and hang them from the fence, or put flowerpots with flowers along the pond or on the railing. They can be brought into the house when needed, or dug into the ground.
As you can see, with a great desire, hard work and patience, you can achieve the desired results by working on the landscape design of a summer cottage of 6 acres. It is clear that our goal is not the envy of our neighbors, but how nice it is when the design of our six hundred square meters is liked by everyone around us.
Plastic container - practical and simple
Manufacturers of large-sized polyethylene products offer ready-made containers for the construction of pools and ponds. Large baths have their advantages:
- easy to transport,
- are simply installed,
- withstand significant loads,
- well washed and processed,
- can be of different sizes and shapes.
A neat pond surrounded by stones and flowerpots
For the installation of such a reservoir, you will need the maximum leveling of the bottom of the pit, followed by its ramming. Otherwise, the mass of water can break the bath material, which is then practically not restored.
Small island pond
Pond by the house with a wooden edge and a white stone tiled bridge
The gaps between the edges of the pit and the outer walls of the container are filled with sand and compacted with a rammer and water. High-quality backfill ensures that when filling, the liquid will not loosen the structure and an accident will not happen.
A pond surrounded by stones with a waterfall in a green garden
This version of the decorative pond is the least laborious to manufacture and maintain. Having poured water out of it, it is very easy to clean it of silt and dirt, and hard sides will not allow the soil to crumble.
Large artificial pond with gazebo and bridge
It can be designed as a natural body of water, or you can make it the central object of a picnic area. Such a pond can also be used as a small safe pool for children, especially since the plastic is dark in color and accumulates solar heat well.
We arrange a modular vegetable garden
Actually modular gardens from the point of view of not only convenience, but also creativity - a good help in gardens of any style. According to the rules, in such a garden, the beds should always have a fence, and the paths between them should have a hard surface.
The most practical is arrangement of a vegetable garden in raised modules. You can make wooden boxes from planks or beams (40-50 mm). In this case, do not forget about impregnation with protective agents or painting! For the vegetable garden country style baskets made of twigs (hazel, mountain ash, willow) are perfect. The most inexpensive material is plastic curbs, which are dug in along the perimeter of the beds. And the most durable materials are brick, natural stone, concrete. And you can, for example, make the sides of the ridges metal, preferably iron - aluminum quickly crumple.
Such raised modules are good because the soil in them warms up better, and vegetables grow faster. It is very convenient to look after such a "blocky" garden. In each block, you can add exactly the soil that is needed for the correct development of these vegetable crops. Another "bonus" - there are almost no weeds on such beds, since they cannot "invade" from the aisles, and the vegetables themselves are not allowed to grow inside the module!
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Modules like these are a great way to transform your garden into a wonderful decorative corner of the garden, which will look attractive at any time of the year, even without plants! The combinations of individual blocks, their color and texture of the material look spectacular elements that correspond to the style and general configuration of the garden area.
If you have very little space for placing a vegetable garden, or, for example, you want to arrange vegetables in different corners of the garden, then you can arrange only two or three modules and install them in the necessary areas of the site - for example, a module with spicy herbs - in the barbecue area, salads - near the kitchen and so on.
Another option is to try to make a vegetable "pyramid" of three square boxes without a bottom (of different sizes). Place them on top of each other and fill them in turn with earth: first the lower one, then the middle and upper ones. Herb garden ready!