Planting currants: how and when is it best to do it
Perhaps not a single garden plot can do without currants. This fragrant and healthy berry is very popular. Currant bushes are decorated with clusters of various colors: white, red, pink, black. And what a fragrant tea with currant leaves! To grow fruitful bushes, you need to plant them correctly.
Selection of seedlings
Planting material is best purchased in nurseries where plants are strictly controlled. When buying seedlings, you need to carefully examine the roots. The largest of them in the amount of two or three should be brownish-yellow in color and 15–20 cm long. In addition to them, there should be light thin roots, white in section.
A dirty brown color is a sign of a disease of the root system.
It is necessary to inspect the earthen lump, even after removing it from the pot. If it is densely braided with roots, this is a good sign.
The root system of a healthy seedling should be developed, fibrous, without mold
Do not take plants with flexible, immature shoots - they can freeze out in winter. A good quality shoot is completely brown, with leaves and buds without spots or signs of wilting.
When buying seedlings on the market, you need to pay attention to the shape and size of the buds: the presence of rounded and swollen ones indicates that the plant is damaged by a kidney mite. Diseased twigs need to be cut and burned.
Planting time for currants
When planted in autumn, currants adapt well and begin to grow immediately in spring. In the Moscow region, the best month for planting is September, in the southern regions - October. The plant takes root well within two weeks. To retain moisture and protect the roots from freezing, the soil around the seedling is mulched with natural materials:
- rotted manure.
In the spring, it is difficult to choose a favorable moment, since the buds begin to bloom very early on the currants and you need to have time to plant it before that time. In the Moscow region, the optimal period is the beginning of May. With a later planting, the plants will not take root well and lag behind in development.
It is better to be guided not by calendar dates, but by the state of the kidneys. They should be swollen but not open at the time of planting.
In regions with little snowy winters, it is better to plant currants in spring.
Site selection and landing features
Like most plants, currants love well-lit areas. In a shaded place, the shrub will grow, but the stems will elongate, and the yield will drop. In the shade, the berry is more affected by fungal diseases.
In addition to good illumination, currants are demanding on high soil moisture. Loamy soils with good drainage are ideal for her.
Currants develop well in sunny areas with sufficient moisture
The distance between seedlings in a row should be at least 1 m, and up to 2 m is left between the rows. This is the standard seating pattern. From the berry to fruit trees - at least 2.5 m.
When choosing a placement density, you need to take into account the type of crown of the selected variety and other factors. If the bushes are supposed to be used for no more than two years, you can compact the planting scheme by reducing the distance between plants to 70 cm.
Soil preparation and planting of seedlings
Prepare the soil 20-30 days before planting. The site is cleared of weeds and dug to a depth of 22-25 cm with the addition of fertilizers. 1 m2 make:
- 3-4 kg of humus or compost;
- 100-150 g of double superphosphate;
- 20-30 g of potassium sulfate;
- 0.3-0.5 kg of lime per m2 (if the soil is acidic).
The planting process consists of the following steps:
- Dig a hole or trench 35–40 cm deep and 50–60 cm wide, folding separately the top fertile soil layer.
In the process of digging a planting hole, you need to set aside the top fertile soil layer
- Make a nutrient mixture:
- humus bucket;
- 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate;
- 2 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium salt or 2 cups of wood ash;
- fertile soil.
- Fill the hole 2/3, forming the soil with a mound.
- Place a seedling in the hole with the root collar deepening by 5–7 cm and tilted at an angle of 45 degrees. Several buds should remain underground after backfill.
Inclined planting stimulates the emergence of additional roots and shoots from the buds of the buried part of the stem and root collar
- Cover the seedling with earth, carefully spreading the roots along the earthen mound and pouring water.
- Compact the soil around the seedling and once again pour well with a bucket of water.
- Mulch the soil around the seedling.
- Immediately after planting, it is necessary to cut off the aerial shoots, leaving no more than two buds on each, so that the seedling can root well and give new productive branches. As a result, a powerful healthy bush with many young shoots develops.
Video: how to choose and plant currants
Breeding methods for currants
With a decrease in the yield of berry plantings, you should start updating them. There are several ways to breed:
- dividing the bush.
A popular way of propagating currants is cuttings due to the possibility of obtaining a large amount of planting material.
For spring planting, you must:
- Cut off annual shoots with a diameter of at least a regular pencil (about 5–6 mm).
- Cut from the middle part of the cuttings 15–20 cm long at a distance of 1 cm from the upper and lower buds. The upper cut is made straight, and the lower one obliquely. The stalk must have at least 4–5 buds.
- Dig up the planting bed to a depth of 20 cm.
- To keep the row even, put the pegs and pull the rope over them.
- Stick the cuttings into the loose soil with an inclination of 45 degrees every 15 cm, leaving 2 buds on top, deepen the rest.
Cuttings 15-20 cm long are planted at an inclination of 45 degrees at a distance of 15 cm from each other
- Lay agrofilm along the row to retain heat and moisture, to prevent the growth of weeds.
- Plant the next row at a distance of 40 cm.
- When the soil warms up well, remove the film.
Video: spring planting of currants with cuttings
When harvesting cuttings in the fall, you need:
- Dip them into the water with the lower end and keep them at 20 degrees for a week. Change the water twice. Such cuttings can be planted immediately in open ground, they will take root well.
- Plant in the same way as in spring, in an inclined position slightly deeper, with one bud on the surface.
- Water the soil well and mulch with a layer of up to 5 cm.Use as mulch:
- you can lay a dark or transparent film instead of mulch.
Cuttings planted in the fall will root in early spring and begin to grow before budding. The seedlings received after a year should be moved to a permanent place.
You can plant cuttings in the fall in containers with soil and drainage holes (glasses or plastic bottles), put on the windowsill of the house and water until spring. Flowers and ovaries must be removed.
Video: autumn planting of currants by cuttings
The most common way is propagation by horizontal layers.
- A two-year-old branch is bent to the ground, loosened and watered, pinned down with wire.
- After the emergence of shoots in this place, they are covered with soil 2 times:
- With a shoot height of 10-12 cm.
- 2-3 weeks after that.
- When the cuttings are fully rooted, they are dug up and planted.
When propagating currants with horizontal layering, the shoot is laid in a groove, pinned to the soil and covered with earth
Young bushes are used for vertical layering.
- Most of the branches are cut almost to the ground, this stimulates the growth of shoots from the lower buds.
- With a height of new stems of 20 cm or more, they are huddled up to half with moist earth, having previously loosened the soil around the bush.
- In autumn, shoots with roots are cut and planted separately.
When propagating currants by vertical layering, branches are cut to obtain new shoots
By dividing the bush
Reproduction of currants by dividing the bush is carried out in the fall after the leaves fall (in October - November) or in early spring before bud break (in March).
- Carefully dig the plant out of the ground. To preserve the roots as much as possible, you need to dig in at a distance of 40 cm from the center of the bush.
- Free the roots from the soil.
- Divide the bush into several equal parts with a pruner or saw, preferably no more than three.
- Remove old, broken, diseased and poorly growing shoots before planting. For better survival of plants, place them in water for a day with the addition of growth stimulants.
- Plant in the same way as seedlings.
The division of the bushes can be used when transferring the plantation to a new location.
This breeding method is not the best, despite its lightness and speed. Diseases and pests accumulate in the old plant, which can develop on the transplanted bush.
Video: reproduction of currants by dividing the bush
Transfer to a new location
Mature bushes no older than 10 years old can be moved to another, more convenient place or to another area. An adult bush is transplanted in the autumn, after the end of fruiting. At this time, it does not need to be watered, like in spring, it will take root better.
It is necessary to wait until the end of the sap flow so that the bush does not start growing immediately and does not freeze in winter, that is, two weeks before frost. In the middle lane it is September - October, in the southern regions - October - early November.
The hole is harvested in advance: they put drainage, humus, mineral fertilizers. Its dimensions depend on the root system of the transplanted plant, usually a hole of 70x70x70 cm is enough.
- Prepare the plant for transplanting: peel off dried and old branches, cut young stems in half.
- Dig in the bush on all sides at a distance of 40 cm from the center so as not to damage the roots, then remove it together with a lump of earth.
- Examine the roots, remove damaged ones, as well as pest larvae, if any.
- Plant the bush in the mud. To do this, pour water into the prepared hole until a liquid soil mixture is formed and place the plant in it.
- Cover with dry earth on top and water again abundantly.
The currant is very tenacious, it takes root well in any soil, even not fertilized.
Video: transplanting currants (part 1)
Video: currant transplant (part 2)
Post-transplant care consists of the following:
- Currants need abundant watering for 1-2 weeks, but no more than three, so that the roots do not rot and fungal diseases do not appear.
- When transplanting young plants, you need to cut off the color at first, so that the plant takes root and develops well, and does not waste energy on fruiting.
- If there is a threat of frost, the bush must be covered.
As you can see, growing currants is not difficult at all. To begin with, you can take a spine with a spine from a neighbor and plant one bush. In two years, it will grow well and yield a crop. The main thing is to start!
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Unconventional ways of planting currants
It would seem that all the issues of planting currants have long been resolved, all possible methods and techniques are well known, and what else to invent? But our gardeners love to experiment, expecting some kind of miracle. They also experiment with planting currants in their plots.
Planting currants on a trellis
Currants can be grown not only in the usual form, consisting of separate bushes, but it can be used to make a kind of "wall" that resembles a fence. For this, bushes are planted in one row very often, every 30-50 cm. But this fence is formed in such a way that it has a flat shape: shoots growing away from it are cut out, and those that have grown in a “plane” are looked after. In the trellis method, you cannot do without the garter of the stems. They need to be fixed firmly, but so that the twine does not cut into and break the branches. Thus, the trellis method requires a frame made of pillars driven into the ground and stretched rows of thick wire, to which, in fact, currant stems are tied.
It would seem, why unnecessary problems and costs? The fact is, this approach has significant advantages: the branches are raised above the ground, and this improves the ergonomics in growing technology. It is easier to cultivate the soil and take care of the bushes, the conditions are better for pollination of flowers by bees (therefore, more harvest). And most importantly, the collection of berries is greatly facilitated, and they do not lie on the ground and do not get dirty.
Any strong pillars or metal pipes up to 2.5 m long are used as the base of the trellis. They are installed at a distance of at least 6 m from each other. The lower ends driven into the ground must be protected against corrosion. A strong wire 3-4 mm in diameter is attached to the posts every half a meter to tie currant branches to it.
Currants on a trellis look like a fence of bushes growing in the form of fans
The bush is formed over several years, leaving only shoots growing in the plane of the trellis. They are fanned out and tied to wires. Unnecessary shoots are cut from the ground. Bushes care - watering, feeding, pruning.
Planting currants in tires
What they just put in old car tires! Some find it beautiful, some just original, but many agree that this fit makes it easier to care for. There is some truth in this. For example, planting strawberries in a vertical pyramid of tires is already becoming a traditional fun for summer residents who have very limited areas for ordinary planting. Planting raspberries in tires helps to combat uncontrolled overgrowth. They also experimented with currants, but so far these experiments can hardly be considered successful.
Car tires can be used only for a fence, putting them around a bush or pulling a bush with a bicycle tire so that it does not fall apart, but planting currants in a tire filled with earth means risking freezing of the roots. If there is a large tire, say, from KamAZ, you can dig it into the ground almost entirely, and in the center, but into the ground, and not into the tire, plant a currant bush in the usual way. Then the tire can help protect the currants from creeping weeds, overgrown raspberries or cherries and even block the way for some underground pests.