Wampi Plant Care – Growing An Indian Swamp Plant In Gardens

Wampi Plant Care – Growing An Indian Swamp Plant In Gardens

By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist

It is interesting that Clausena lansium is known as the Indian swamp plant, since they are actually native to China and temperate Asia and were introduced to India. The plants are not widely known in India but they do grow well in the country’s climate. What is a wampi plant? Wampi is a relative of citrus and produces small, oval fruits with tangy flesh. This small tree may not be hardy in your USDA zone, as it is only suitable for hot, humid climates. Finding fruit at local Asian produce centers may be your best bet for tasting the juicy fruits.

What is a Wampi Plant?

Wampi fruit have a high amount of Vitamin C, just like their citrus cousins. The plant was used traditionally as a medicinal but new Indian wampi plant info indicates it has modern applications to help sufferers of Parkinson’s, bronchitis, diabetes, hepatitis, and trichomoniasis. There are even studies related to its effectiveness in assisting in the treatment of some cancers.

The jury is still out, but wampi plants are shaping up to be interesting and useful foods. Whether you have a lab in your backyard or not, growing wampi plants brings something new and unique into your landscape and allows you to share this wonderful fruit with others.

Clausena lansium is a small tree that achieves only around 20 feet (6 m.) in height. Leaves are evergreen, resinous, compound, alternate, and grow 4 to 7 inches (10 to 18 cm.) long. The form has arching upright branches and gray, warty bark. Flowers are scented, white to yellow-green, ½ inch (1.5 cm.) wide, and carried in panicles. These give way to fruits that hang in clusters. The fruits are round to oval with pale ridges along the sides and may be up to an inch (2.5 cm.) long. The rind is brownish yellow, bumpy, and slightly hairy and contains many resin glands. The interior flesh is juicy, similar to a grape, and embraced by a large seed.

Indian Wampi Plant Info

Wampi trees are native to southern China and the northern and central areas of Vietnam. Fruits were brought to India by Chinese immigrants and they have been in cultivation there since the 1800s.

Trees flower in February and April in the ranges they are found, such as Sri Lanka and peninsular India. Fruits are ready from May through July. The flavor of the fruit is said to be quite tart with sweet notes towards the end. Some plants produce a more acidic fruit while others have sweeter fleshed wampis.

The Chinese described the fruits as sour jujubee or white chicken heart among other designations. There were once eight varieties commonly grown in Asia but today only a few are commercially available.

Wampi Plant Care

Interestingly, wampis are easy to grow from seed, which germinates in days. A more common method is grafting.

The Indian swamp plant doesn’t fare well in regions that are too dry and where temperatures may fall below 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-6 C.).

These trees are tolerant of a wide range of soils but prefer rich loam. Soil should be fertile and well-draining and supplemental water needs to be given in hot periods. The trees tend to need magnesium and zinc when grown in limestone soils.

Most wampi plant care encompasses watering and annual fertilizing. Pruning is necessary only to remove dead wood or increase sunlight to ripen fruit. Trees need some training when young to establish a good scaffold and keep fruiting branches easy to reach.

Wampi trees make a one of a kind addition to the edible tropical to the sub-tropical garden. They certainly are worth growing, for fun and food.

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Plants as per rasi

Referring to Jyotish Shastra, every person born under a particular zodiac sign has particular plants, herbs and spices that resonate clearly with their sign. There are 12 trees that correspond to 12 zodiac signs, according to this belief, positive energies come to one who plants his/her Rasi trees which will bring the person good luck and prosperity. In addition to the trees there are several plants, flowers, shrubs, vines etc are associated to the rasi. Lets have a look to the trees and plants associated to the zodiac signs:

♈ Aries (Mesh)

Lucky Trees > Red Sandalwood (Adenanthera pavonina)

Lucky Plants > Governors plum, Hibiscus Karkade, Tapioca, Mamey Sapote, Ruda, Baobab, Euphorbia, Acanthus, Aloe, Caesalpinia, Erythrina, Opuntia, Dragon Fruit, Pachypodium, Pomegranate,Chilli peppers, Syngonium, Begonia, Geranium, Red Sandalwood, Jamiaca pepper (Pimenta, Allspice), Camphor, Jujube, Anise, Red Roses, Tiger Lily, Impatiens, Calendula, Tarragon, Ginger, Coriander, Basil,Ruda, Amaryllis, Wild Indigo, Gooseberries, Sesbania, Campsis, Red Oleander, Maple, Schotia brachypetala, Momordica, Coffee, Amla , Ephedra, Red Kapok.

♉ Taurus (Vrishabh)

Lucky Trees > Sapthaparni (Alstonia scholaris), Papaya

Lucky Plants > Aglaia, Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang), Artabotrys (Climbing Ylang-Ylang), Cerbera, Night blooming jasmine, Chonemorpha, Erblichia, Euodia, Hiptage, Iboza (Musk Bush), Anise, Lavender, Lonchocarpus Lilac Tree, Nutmeg, Parijat, Camphor Basil, Osmanthus, Funeral tree, Quisqualis, Satureja (Kama Sutra Mint Tree), Viburnum, Carissa, Murraya, Curry Leaf, Bunchosia (Peanut butter fruit), Eucalyptus, Lily, Vitex agnus castus (Blue Chaste Tree), Alstonia scholaris (Sapthaparni), Papaya, Maple, Jasmine, Guaiacum, Camellia, Ephedra, Fuchsia, Geranium, Spider lily, Gardenia, Magnolia, Plumeria, Paeonia, Verbena, Clerodendrums, Apple, Pear, Apricot, Peach, Plantain, Olive, Grape, Pomegranate, Mango, Neem Tree, Cherry, Cypresses, all Berries, Raspberry, Asparagus, Mint, Clove, Roses, Stagshorn fern, Catnip.

♊ Gemini (Mithun)

Lucky Trees > Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Aloe vera

Lucky Plants > Ferns, Blechnum, Tree ferns and Cyatheas, Fern Tree, Aralias, Jackfruit and Breadfruit, Paulownia, Anthurium, Philodendron, Philadelphus, Clerodendrums, Anise, Lavender, Myrtle, Nut trees, Macadamia, Ficus, Piggyback plant – Tolmiea menziesii, Aloe vera, Fig, Honeysuckle, Azalea, Mint Tree Satureja, Vitex, Ironwood, Mulberry, Osmoxylon, Acalypha, Allamanda, Aphelandra, Iboza, Ruda, Kiwi, Caesalpinia, Cyphomandra, Monstera, Kalanchoe, Magnolia, Oregano, Ocimum, Naranjilla, Zamia, Delionix, Acacias, Calliandra, Patchoili, Palms, Geranium, Grevillea, Eucalyptus.

♋ Cancer (Kark)

Lucky Trees > Palas (Butea monosperma)

Lucky Plants > Lilies, Eucomis, Magnolia, Nicotiana, Brugmansia, Dombeya, White flowers, Water lilies, Lotus, Maidenhair fern, Monstera, Cinnamon, Sage, Aloe, Lemon Balm, Bay leaf, Palasa – Butea monosperma, Acai, Mahogany, Mango, Banana, Apple, Pear, Geranium – Pelargonium, White roses, Solandra Chalice Vine, Butter Cup, Acalypha, Cornutia, Ruda, Oregano, Camphor plant, Grapes,Brunfelsia, Alocasia, Colocasia, Canna, Cyperus, Iris, Equisetum, Mangroves.

♌ Leo (Singh)

Lucky Trees > Kaligottu (Stereospermum chelonoides)

Lucky Plants > Sunflower tree, Delonix, Hibiscus, Abutilon, Mahoe, Hawaiin Sunset Vine (Stictocardia), Campsis, Passion flower, Calendula, Mexican Flame Vine, Bay Leaf, Safflower, Mint, Rosemary, Ruda – Ruta graveolens, Marigolds, Sunflowers, Palm trees, Lemon and orange trees, Grapefruit, Dieffenbachia , Croton, Lemon Balm, Chamomile, Tarragon, Kaligottu (Stereospermum chelonoides), Bel Fruit, White Madaar, Peppers, Pineapple, Coconut, Anise, Heliotrope, Gingers, Lavender, Ashoka Tree, Dombeya, Jacquemontia, Lychee, Mulberry, Philodendrons, Macaranga, Anthuriums, Aphelandra, Orchid trees, Leonotis.

♍ Virgo (Kanya)

Lucky Trees > Mango, Aloe vera

Lucky Plants > Amorphophallus, Anethum graveolens (Dill), Barringtonia, Bolusanthus, Dioscorea, Grewia asiatica (Falsa), Hibiscus sabdariffa (Karkade), Iboza riparia, Lagerstroemia speciosa (Queens Crape Myrtle), Laurus nobilis (Bay Leaf), Lippia, Melissa, Catnip, Mint, Arugula, Piper betle, Piper sarmentosum, Psychotria, Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Banisteriopsis, Papaya, Mesua ferrea (Ironwood), Momordica, Euterpe oleracea (Assai Palm), Jacaranda, Magnolia officinalis, Pimenta dioica (Allspice), Osteospermum, Petrea, Plumbago, Clitoria, Eranthemum, Litchi, Cashew, Pecan, Nut trees, Cherries, Lavender, Myrtles, Sansiveria, Aloe vera, Blackberry, Honey suckle, Satureja, Vitex, Mulberry, Elaeocarpus, Clausena lansium (Wampi), Feronia elephantum (Bel Fruit).

♎ Libra (Tula)

Lucky Trees > Bakul (Mimusops elengi)

Lucky Plants > Jasmine, Gardenia, Euclinia, Pua Keni Keni, Randia, Beaumontia, Faradaya, Butterfly Ginger, Kopsia, Hydrangea, Montanoa, Aglaia, Dwarf Ylang-Ylang, Desmos, Clematis, Almond Bush, Brunfelsia, Four oclock plant, Juniper, Moonflower, Carissa, White Chocolate Jasmine, Night blooming jasmine, Fiddlewood, Honeysuckle, Orchid, Clerodendrums, Millingtonia, Parijat, Fried Egg Tree, Oxyceros, Phaleria, Tuberose, Cubanola, Portlandia, Rothmannia, Freesia, Gladiolus, Hydrangea, Allamanda, Nasturtium, Rose, Camelia, Ephedra, Fuchsia, Ylang-Ylang, Magnolia, Stemmadenia (Milky Way), White Plumeria, Appleblossom, Needle Flower Tree, Tree Jasmine, Guaiacum, Epiphyllum, Amazon Lily, India Hawthorn, Stephanotis, Talauma, Pakalana vine, Wrightia, White flowers, Big roses, Cypress, Lucky Bamboo, Dracaena, Bakul (Mimusops elengi), Apple, Pear, Fig, Raspberry, Olive, Pomegranate, Apricot, Peach, Plum, Loquat, Grape, Blackberry, Mango, Cherries, Paradise plum (Chrysobalanus icaco), Berries, Grape, Neem tree, Asparagus, Spices, Mint, Catnip, Bergamot, Thyme, Cardamom

♏ Scorpio (Vrishchik)

Lucky Trees > Khair (Acacia catechu)

Lucky Plants > Ceiba, Baobab, Pistachio, Nutmeg, Black-eyed Susan Thunbergia, Combretums, Dragon fruit, Medinilla, Camphor Basil, Cuban Oregano, Vanilla orchid, Hibiscus, Various cacti and succulents, Adenium, Honeysuckle, Peppers, Cordyline, Spider plant, Jasmine, Gooseberries, Wild indigo, Bougainvillea, Aloe vera, Raspberry, Palmetto, Horseradish tree, Camphor, Allspice and Bay Rum,Jujube, Sweet Mimosa, Agave, Milkweed, Hong Kong Orchid Tree, Pony Tail, Dwarf Poinciana, Bottlebrushes, Clusias, Crocosmia, Zig-Zag Cactus, Dracaena, Fire Bush, Hoyas, Jatropha, Kalanchoe, Sausage tree, Devils Backbone, Pereskia, Red Plumeria, Firecracker, Rattlebox, Rhoeo, Calendula, Geranium, Thistles, Mint, Sage, Catnip, Coriander, Sandalwood, Ginseng, Euphorbias, Acacias.

♐ Sagittarius (Dhanasu)

Lucky Trees > Peepal (Ficus religiosa), Banana, Mango

Lucky Plants > Mulberry, Ceiba, Chonemorpha, Beaumontia, Baobab, Grapefruit, Anise, Sage, Cinnamon, Blueberry, Thistles, Nut trees, Lemon, all Ficus trees – Peepal (Ficus religiosa), Fig,Coleus, Basil , Banana, Mango, Ironwood (Mesua ferrea), Clematis, Peony, Jasmine, Nutmeg, Mint, Tea, Date palm, Guava, Jambul, Maple, Magnolia, Teak, Bird of Paradise, Heliconia, Showy Gingers.

♑ Capricorn (Makar)

Lucky Trees > Neem Tree

Lucky Plants > Baobab, Peach Palm, Patchouli, Bamboo, Cordyline, Spider Lily, Serissa, Desert Rose, Croton, Aloe, Palms, Giraffe knee plant (Gonatopus boivinii), Adenanthera, Black Pepper, Solanums, Loquat, Aglaonema, Jacaranda, Rosemary, Guarana, Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Neem Tree, Calendula, Brugmansia, Cannabis, Coca, Kava-Kava, Root Beer plant, Kratom, Banesteriopsis, Psychotria, Quince, Almonds, Ginkgo, Olive, Strophanthus, Bread Flower, Amorphophallus, Areca Palm, Anadenanthera, all Pipers, Brunfelsia densifolia, Chaya, Persimmons, Surinam Cherry, Bel Fruit, Ashoka Tree, Calla Lily.

♒ Aquarius (Kumbh)

Lucky Trees > Jacaranda, Sheesham Tree (Dalbergia)

Lucky Plants > Anise, Orchid, Golden rain – Koelreuteria paniculata, Bird of Paradise, Heliconia, Petrea, Mandevilla, Jasminum, Kiwi, Persimmon, Loquat, Olive, Alocasia, Colocasia, Citrus, Apple, Peppers, Gingers, Carambola, herbs spicy with an unusual flavor, White Pothos, Ivy, Shami – Prosopis cineraria, Neem, Medinilla, Sheesham Tree, Catnip, Passion fruit, Valerian, Aloe, Myrrh, Kava-kava, Cinnamon, Clove, Eucalyptus, Coffee, Cola nut, Nepenthes, Vanilla Orchid, Strongylodon – Jade vine, Tacca – Bat Lily, Eranthemums, Agapanthus, Orchid trees, Bolusanthus, Chamaedorea metallica, Clerodendrum ugandense, Clitoria, Duranta, Guaiacum, Jacaranda, Lavanda.

♓ Pisces (Meen)

Lucky Trees > Banyan (Ficus bengalensis), Banana, Mango

Lucky Plants > Water lily, Lotus, Clematis, Wisteria, Lisianthus, Brunfelsia, Echinacea, English Lavender, Rosemary, Coconut palm, Cranberry, Clove, Coccoloba, Sea Oats, Mangroves, Ochrosia,Aquatic plants, Colocasia, Alocasia, Aralia, Ficus trees, Banyan , Peepal, Banana, Mango, Mimosa, Olive, Anise, Vilca and Yopo, Kava-kava, Nutmeg, Anthuriums, Eucalyptus, Bauhinia, Clusia, Caesalpinia,Callistemon, Bucida, Cassia fistula, Cordia, Calabash, Lipstick palm , Delonix, Elaeocarpus, Erythrina, Fatsia, Guaiacum, Mahoe, Koelreuteria, Kopsia, Macaranga, Pandanus, Peltophorum, Psychotria,Banesteriopsis, Tabebuia.

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Mashrita has vision to bridge the potential of nature and technology, tradition and science to help the planet in being a more better place. Nature is truly a master piece, it has incredible beauty and tremendous potentials. All we need to do is - learn appreciating it, learn spreading it.


The term wampum (or wampumpeag) initially referred only to the white beads which are made of the inner spiral or columella of the Channeled whelk shell Busycotypus canaliculatus or Busycotypus carica. [4] Sewant or suckauhock beads are the black or purple shell beads made from the quahog or poquahock clamshell Mercenaria mercenaria. [5] Sewant or Zeewant was the term used for this currency by the New Netherland colonists. [6] Common terms for the dark and white beads are wampi (white and yellowish) and saki (dark). [7] The clams and whelks used for making wampum are found only along Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. The Lenape name for Long Island is Sewanacky, reflecting its connection to the dark wampum.

Wampum beads are typically tubular in shape, often a quarter of an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide. One 17th-century Seneca wampum belt featured beads almost 2.5 inches (65 mm) long. [4] Women artisans traditionally made wampum beads by rounding small pieces of whelk shells, then piercing them with a hole before stringing them. Wooden pump drills with quartz drill bits and steatite weights were used to drill the shells. The unfinished beads would be strung together and rolled on a grinding stone with water and sand until they were smooth. The beads would be strung or woven on deer hide thongs, sinew, milkweed bast, or basswood fibers. [8]

The term wampum is a shortening of wampumpeag, which is derived from the Massachusett or Narragansett word meaning "white strings of shell beads". [8] [9] The Proto-Algonquian reconstructed form is thought to be (wa·p-a·py-aki), "white strings". [10] In New York, wampum beads have been discovered dating before 1510. [4]

The introduction of European metal tools revolutionized the production of wampum by the mid-seventeenth century, production numbered in the tens of millions of beads. [11] Dutch colonists discovered the importance of wampum as a means of exchange between tribes, and they began mass-producing it in workshops. John Campbell established such a factory in Pascack, New Jersey, which manufactured wampum into the early 20th century. [4]

Among the Iroquois Edit

Wampum strings may be presented as a formal affirmation of cooperation or friendship between groups, [12] or as an invitation to a meeting. [13]

The Iroquois used wampum as a person's credentials or a certificate of authority. It was also used for official purposes and religious ceremonies, and it was used as a way to bind peace between tribes. Among the Iroquois, every chief and every clan mother has a certain string of wampum that serves as their certificate of office. When they pass on or are removed from their station, the string will then pass on to the new leader. Runners carrying messages during colonial times would present the wampum showing that they had the authority to carry the message. [14]

As a method of recording and an aid in narrating, Iroquois warriors with exceptional skills were provided training in interpreting the wampum belts. As the Keepers of the Central Fire, the Onondaga Nation was also trusted with the task of keeping all wampum records. Wampum is still used in the ceremony of raising up a new chief and in the Iroquois Thanksgiving ceremonies. [15]

The wampum was central to the giving of names, in which the names and titles of deceased persons were passed on to others. Deceased individuals of high office are quickly replaced, as a wampum inscribed with the name of the deceased is laid on the shoulders of the successor, the successor may shake off the Wampum and reject the transfer of name. The reception of a name may also transfer personal history, and previous obligations of the deceased, e.g., the successor of a person killed in war may be obligated to avenge the death of the names previous holder, or care for the deceased persons family as their own. [16]

. the Iroquoians (Five Nations and Huron alike) shared a very particular constitution: they saw their societies not as a collection of living individuals but as a collection of eternal names, which over the course of times passed from one individual holder to another. [17]

Just as the wampum enabled the continuation of names and the histories of persons, the wampum was central to establishing and renewing peace between clans and families. When a man representing his respective social unit met another, he would offer one wampum inscribed with mnemonic symbols representing the purpose of the meeting or message. The wampum, thus, facilitated the most essential practices in holding the Iroquois society together. [18]

Currency Edit

When Europeans came to the Americas, they adopted wampum as money to trade with the native peoples of New England and New York. Wampum was legal tender in New England from 1637 to 1661 it continued as currency in New York until 1673 at the rate of eight white or four black wampum equalling one stuiver, meaning that the white had the same value as the copper duit coin. The colonial government in New Jersey issued a proclamation setting the rate at six white or three black to one penny this proclamation also applied in Delaware. [19] The black shells were rarer than the white shells and so were worth more, which led people to dye the white and dilute the value of black shells. [20]

Robert Beverley Jr. of Virginia Colony wrote about tribes in Virginia in 1705. He describes peak as referring to the white shell bead, valued at 9 pence a yard, and wampom peak as denoting specifically the more expensive dark purple shell bead, at the rate of 1 shilling and 6 pence (18 pence) per yard. He says that these polished shells with drilled holes are made from the cunk (conch), while another currency of lesser value called roenoke was fashioned from the cockleshell. [21]

The process to make wampum was labor-intensive with stone tools. Only the coastal tribes had sufficient access to the basic shells to make wampum. These factors increased its scarcity and consequent value among the European traders. Dutch colonists began to manufacture wampum and eventually the primary source of wampum was that manufactured by colonists, a market which the Dutch glutted.

Wampum briefly became legal tender in North Carolina in 1710, but its use as common currency died out in New York by the early 18th century.

Transcription Edit

William James Sidis wrote in his 1935 history

The weaving of wampum belts is a sort of writing by means of belts of colored beads, in which the various designs of beads denoted different ideas according to a definitely accepted system, which could be read by anyone acquainted with wampum language, irrespective of what the spoken language is. Records and treaties are kept in this manner, and individuals could write letters to one another in this way. [22]

Wampum belts were used as a memory aid in oral tradition, and were sometimes used as badges of office or as ceremonial devices in Indian culture such as the Iroquois. The 1820 New Monthly Magazine reports on a speech given by chief Tecumseh in which he vehemently gesticulated to a belt, pointing out treaties made 20 years earlier and battles fought since then. [23]

The National Museum of the American Indian repatriated eleven wampum belts to Haudenosaunee chiefs at the Onondaga Longhouse Six Nations Reserve in New York. These belts dated to the late 18th century and are sacred to the Longhouse Religion. They had been away from their tribes for over a century. [4] [24]

The Seneca Nation commissioned replicas of five historic wampum belts completed in 2008. The belts were made by Lydia Chavez (Unkechaug/Blood) and made with beads manufactured on the Unkechaug Indian Nation Territory on Long Island, New York.

In 2017, a wampum belt purchased by Frank Speck in 1913 was returned to Kanesatake, where it is used in cultural and political events. [25]

The Shinnecock Indian Nation has sought to preserve a traditional wampum manufacturing site called Ayeuonganit Wampum Ayimꝏup (Here, Wampum Was Made). [26] A portion of the original site, Lot 24 in today's Parrish Pond subdivision in Southampton, Long Island, has been reserved for parkland. [27]

The Unkechaug Nation on Long Island, New York, has built a Wampum factory which manufactures traditional as well as contemporary beads for use by Native artists such as Ken Maracle, Elizabeth Perry and Lydia Chavez in their designs of traditional belts and contemporary jewelry. The factory has been in existence since 1998 and has been instrumental in the resurrection of the use of wampum in contemporary native life.

Traditional wampum makers in modern times include Julius Cook (Sakaronkiokeweh) (1927–1999), [28] and Ken Maracle (Haohyoh), a faith keeper of the Lower Cayuga Longhouse. [29]

Artists continue to weave belts of a historical nature, as well as designing new belts or jewelry based on their own concepts. [8]

What Is A Wampi Plant: Learn Some Indian Wampi Plant Info And More - garden

There are several other related genera, which belong to the citrus subfamily:

Severinia (Boxthorn) and
Atalantia (Ceylon Atalantia and Cochin China Atalantia) belong to The Citrus Fruit Trees subtribe, whereas

Triphasia (Limeberry) belongs to The Minor Citroid Fruit Trees .

Glycosmis (Orangeberry),
Clausena (Wampee) and
Murraya (Curry leaf and Mock orange) having very simple, more or less primitive flower and fruit structures belong to The Remote Citroid Fruit Trees subtribe.

Aegle (Bael fruit) and
Balsamocitrus (Uganda Powder-flask fruit) belong to The Hard-Shelled Citroid Fruit Trees .

Flowers have four ovate petals. The fruit resemble small oranges about 20 mm in diameter, with a rough peel and the flesh formed of succulent pulp-vesicles. The seeds are ellipsoid, about 10 mm long.

The tree grows wild in dry forests on hills and plains of central and southern India and Burma, Pakistan and Bangladesh, also in mixed forests of former French Indochina. Mention has been found in writings dating back to 800 B.C. It is cultivated throughout India, mainly in temple gardens, because of its status as a sacred tree also in Ceylon and northern Malaya, the drier areas of Java, and to a limited extent on northern Luzon in the Philippine Islands.

The fruit has a very hard woody outer shell that usually takes a hammer or large rock to break open. Inside the fruit surrounding the hairy seeds, is a very thick clear syrup-like pulp.

In India, the ripe fruit is made into a drink and it also possesses a laxative quality. Aegle has adapted to both tropical and cool climates, enduring temperatures of - 8 degrees C (17.5 F).

One esteemed, large cultivar with thin rind and few seeds is known as 'Kaghzi' . Rated the best is 'Mitzapuri' , with very thin rind, breakable with slight pressure of the thumb, pulp of fine texture, free of gum, of excellent flavor, and containing few seeds. Other well-known cultivars include: 'Darogaji', 'Ojha', 'Rampuri', 'Azamati' and 'Khamaria' .

Uganda powder-flask fruit (Balsamocitrus daweii) is in the Hard-Shelled Citroid Fruit Trees subtribe known as Bael fruit . The fruits always have 8 locules filled with many seeds in a liquid balsamic jelly, pulp scarce, no vesicles, and a hard, woody outer shell. The leaves are always trifoliate and the twigs are terribly thorny. This remarkable Citrus relative is native to the plateau of Uganda, East Africa, to the east of Lake Albert, at altitudes of 600 to 915 meters (2,000 to 3,000 ft.), where it attains a height of about 25 meters (82 feet).

In California, the Balsamocitrus becomes about 20 feet tall and is very productive.

The fruit are grapefruit-sized and hard shelled similar in overall appearance to the bael fruit. The flesh is edible and has an aromatic scent.

The wampee may be round, or conical-oblong, up to 1 in (2.5 cm) long. The wampee is native and commonly cultivated in southern China and the northern part of former French Indochina, especially from north to central Vietnam. It is cultivated to a limited extent in Queensland, Australia and Hawaii. It was brought to Florida as an unidentified species in 1908.

A fully ripe, peeled wampee, of the sweet or subacid types, is agreeable to eat out-of-hand, discarding the large seed or seeds. The seeded pulp can be added to fruit cups, gelatins or other desserts, or made into pie or jam. Jelly can be made only from the acid types when under-ripe. The Chinese serve the seeded fruits with meat dishes.

In Southeast Asia, a bottled, carbonated beverage resembling champagne is made by fermenting the fruit with sugar and straining off the juice.

Seven varieties of Wampee are known in southern China:

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) is an evergreen, small to medium-sized tree from India. Leaves are compound with five to ten pairs of leaflets. The leaves of this species are used in making curry dishes and give them a very agreeable flavor.

Boxthorn works well as a sheared hedge, barrier, or foundation shrub. Only one pruning is needed each year once the plant has reached the desired height. Tolerant of most welldrained soils, Boxthorn needs regular watering until established. Although Boxthorn will grow in shade, it has more compact,
dense growth in full sun. The plant is not widely available, perhaps due to its slow growth rate.

The cultivars ‘Compacta’ and `Nana’ have dwarf growth habits.
Cultivar: Chinese (China)

Limeberry (Triphasia trifoliata) from Southeastern Asia can be grown as a shrub,vine or small tree. It has dark green, glossy, trifoliate leaves. The white flowers are very fragrant, and are followed by small, round, red fruits. Although Limeberry is very thorny, it can make an attractive slow-growing ornamental.

The common white sapote occurs both wild and cultivated in central Mexico. It is planted frequently in Guatemala, El Salvador and Costa Rica and is occasionally grown in northern South America, the Bahamas, West Indies, along the Riviera and other parts of the Mediterranean region, India and the East Indies. It is grown commercially in the Gisborne district of New Zealand and to some extent in South Africa.

Apple sized fruit with white or yellow creamy, custardy pulp that has an excellent sweet banana flavor. White sapote's are well known throughout much of Central America and Mexico.

A medium to large tree which can grow up to 50+ feet high. The small flowers are formed in large groups and may occur off and on a few times per year, with fruit ripening 6-8 months later. There are green skinned varieties, yellow skinned varieties, and many in between. Pick fruits as they begin to soften, but do not wait too long as fallen fruits tend to smash when they drop due to their soft flesh. Mature trees can produce hundreds of pounds of fruit every year. They are planted as shade for coffee plantations in Central America.

Uses: Fruits are excellent when eaten ripe. Unripe fruits have a bitter taste, and flesh very near the skin can sometimes have a bitter taste. Usually the flesh is scooped out with a spoon and eaten raw. The flesh of ripe fruits may be added to fruit cups and salads or served alone as dessert, but it is best cut into sections and served with cream and sugar. Sometimes it is added to ice cream mix or milk shakes, or made into marmalade. Even in their countries of origin, where the fruits may at times appear in markets, their repute is due largely to a belief in their therapeutic value, while, at the same time, there prevails a fear that over-indulgence may be harmful.

White Sapote's prefer a climate with moderate humidity, though trees have performed well in high-humidity area such as Hawaii. It colder areas, white sapotes do well in sunny locations, it warmer areas shade may be provided. Water often, although trees can withstand short periods of drought. White sapote's have large tap root systems that require deep soil. Only trees with trimmed roots (or cuttings) can be container grown.

The white sapotes can be classed as subtropical rather than tropical. Casimiroa edulis is usually found growing naturally at elevations between 2,000 and 3,000 ft (600-900 m) and occasionally in Guatemala up to a maximum of 9,000 ft (2,700 m) in areas not subject to heavy rainfall. In California, light frosts cause some leaf shedding but otherwise do not harm the tree. Mature trees have withstood temperature drops to 20є F (-6.67є C) in California and 26є F (-3.33є C) in Florida without injury.

  • If growing in a cool climate, mulch heavily around the tree when the temperature goes down below 35 F in winter to insulate roots from cold.
  • Do regular pruning to retain the tree’s height below 20 feet. When it grows above 12 feet tall, reduce its main trunk to 8 feet to encourage the growth of dense branches.
  • Jackfruit tree establishes after 3-4 years. During this period if it produces flowers pinch them off to promote growth.
  • Once a month remove weeds around it to clear out the growing area as weeds drain the essential nutrients from the healthy soil.
  • Mulch it in summer to save moisture and prevent weeds from growing.
  • Do you know that jackfruit is also used as a vegetable? It is a meat substitute for vegetarians. It is also called vegetarian meat in Asia because of its texture, which is like pork or chicken.
  • Its unripe fruit is used to prepare mouthwatering curry recipes, soups, puree, and pickles.
  • Ripe fruits are sweet, aromatic, and fibrous, which can be eaten alone or used in making syrups, pastries, cakes, and ice creams.


  • D. longan var. echinatus Leenhouts (Borneo, Philippines)
  • D. longan var. longetiolatus Leenhouts (Viet Nam)
  • D. longan subsp. malesianus Leenh. (widespread SE Asia)
  • D. longan var. obtusus (Pierre) Leenh. (Indo-China)

Depending upon climate and soil type the tree may grow to over 100 feet (30 m) [6] in height, but it typically stands 30–40 ft (9–12 m) in height [7] and the crown is round. [8] The trunk is 2.5 ft (0.8 m) thick [7] with corky bark. [8] The branches are long and thick, typically drooping. [7]

The leaves are oblong and blunt-tipped, usually 4–8 inches (10–20 cm) long and 2 in (5 cm) wide. [7] The leaves are pinnately compounded and alternate. [8] There are 6 to 9 pairs of leaflets per leaf [8] and the upper surface is wavy and a dark, glossy-green. [7]

The Longan tree produces light-yellow inflorescences at the end of branches. [7] The inflorescence is commonly called a panicle and are 4–18 in (10–46 cm) long, and widely branched. [8] The small flowers have 5 to 6 sepals and petals that are brownish-yellow. [8] The flower has a two-lobed pistil and 8 stamen. There are three flower types, distributed throughout the panicle [7] staminate (functionally male), pistillate (functionally female), and hermaphroditic flowers. [8] Flowering occurs as a progression. [8]

The fruit hangs in drooping clusters that are circular and about 1 in (2.5 cm) wide. The peel is tan, thin, and leathery with tiny hairs. [8] The flesh is translucent, and the seed is large and black with a circular white spot at the base. [7] [8] This gives the illusion of an eye. [7] The flesh has a musky, sweet taste, which can be compared to the flavor of lychee fruit. [7]

The Longan tree is somewhat sensitive to frost. Longan trees prefer sandy soil. While the species prefers temperatures that do not typically fall below 4.5 °C (40 °F), it can withstand brief temperature drops to about −2 °C (28 °F). [9] Longans usually bear fruit slightly later than lychees. [10]

The wild longan population have been decimated considerably by large-scale logging in the past, and the species used to be listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. If left alone, longan tree stumps will resprout and the listing was upgraded to Near Threatened in 1998. Recent field data are inadequate for a contemporary IUCN assessment. [1]

The longan is believed to originate from the mountain range between Myanmar and southern China. Other reported origins include India, Sri Lanka, upper Myanmar, north Thailand, Kampuchea (more commonly known as Cambodia), north Vietnam and New Guinea. [11]

Its earliest record of existence draws back to the Han Dynasty in 200 BC. The emperor had demanded lychee and longan trees to be planted in his palace gardens in Shaanxi, but the plants failed. Four hundred years later, longan trees flourished in other parts of China like Fujian and Guangdong, where longan production soon became an industry. [12]

Later on, due to immigration and the growing demand for nostalgic foods, the longan tree was officially introduced to Australia in the mid-1800s, Thailand in the late-1800s, and Hawaii and Florida in the 1900s. The warm, sandy-soiled conditions allowed for the easy growth of longan trees. This jump-started the longan industry in these locations. [12]

Despite its long success in China, the longan is considered to be a relatively new fruit to the world. It has only been acknowledged outside of China in the last 250 years. [12] The first European acknowledgement of the fruit was recorded by Joao de Loureiro, a Jesuit botanist, in 1790. The first entry resides in his collection of works, Flora Cochinchinensis. [3]

Currently, longan crops are grown in southern China, Taiwan, northern Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Australia, the United States, and Mauritius. [11] It is also grown in Bangladesh. [13]

The fruit is sweet, juicy and succulent in superior agricultural varieties. The seed and the peel are not consumed. Apart from being eaten raw like other fruits, longan fruit is also often used in Asian soups, snacks, desserts, and sweet-and-sour foods, either fresh or dried, and sometimes preserved and canned in syrup. The taste is different from lychees while longan have a drier sweetness similar to dates, lychees are often messily juicy with a more tropical, grape-like sour sweetness.

Dried longan are often used in Chinese cuisine and Chinese sweet dessert soups. In Chinese food therapy and herbal medicine, it is believed to have an effect on relaxation. [14] In contrast with the fresh fruit, which is juicy and white, the flesh of dried longans is dark brown to almost black.

Longan is commonly found in traditional Eastern folk medicine. This is a common occurrence since, prior to the 1800s, longan was most prevalent in Asia. [12]

In ancient Vietnamese medicine, the "eye" of the longan seed is pressed against snakebites to absorb the venom. This was ineffective, but is still commonly used today. [15]

It is found commonly in most of Asia, primarily in mainland China, Taiwan, Vietnam and Thailand. [16] China, the main longan-producing country in the world, produced about 1,900 thousand tonnes of longan in 2015–2017. Vietnam and Thailand produced around 500 thousand and 980 thousand tonnes, respectively. [17] Like Vietnam, Thailand's economy relies heavily on the cultivation and shipments of longan as well as lychee. This increase in the production of longan reflects recent interest in exotic fruits in other parts of the world. However, the majority of the demand comes from Asian communities in North America, Europe and Australia. [12]

The longan industry is very new in North America and Australia. Commercial crops have only been around for twenty years. In the United States, longan is grown in Florida, Texas, Nevada, Georgia, California, Hawaii, and Arizona. They are also grown in Australia, along the eastern coast.

During harvest, pickers must climb ladders to carefully remove branches of fruit from longan trees. Longan fruit remain fresher if still attached to the branch, so efforts are made to prevent the fruit from detaching too early. Mechanical picking would damage the delicate skin of the fruit, so the preferred method is to harvest by hand. Knives and scissors are the most commonly used tools. [18]

Fruit is picked early in the day in order to minimize water loss and to prevent high heat exposure, which would be damaging. The fruit is then placed into either plastic crates or bamboo baskets and taken to packaging houses, where the fruit undergo a series of checks for quality. The packaging houses are well-ventilated and shaded to prevent further decay. The process of checking and sorting are performed by workers instead of machinery. Any fruit that is split, under-ripe, or decaying is disposed of. The remaining healthy fruit is then prepped and shipped to markets. [12]

Many companies add preservatives to canned longan. Regulations control the preserving process. The only known preservative added to canned longan is sulfur dioxide, to prevent discoloration. [12] Fresh longan that is shipped worldwide is exposed to sulfur fumigation. Tests have shown that sulfur residues remain on the fruit skin, branches, and leaves for a few weeks. This violates many countries' limits on fumigation residue, and efforts have been made to reduce this amount. [12]

Potassium chlorate has been found to cause the longan tree to blossom. However, this stresses the tree if used excessively, and eventually kills it. [ citation needed ]

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