Correct reproduction of girlish grapes by cuttings in autumn
Today, the owners of country houses are trying to fence themselves off from prying eyes with large fences of various shapes. But sometimes there is not enough money for a spectacular fence, and a hedge made from this grape plant comes to the rescue. Maiden or wild grapes are easy to multiply, everything can be done on your own. One of the most common breeding methods in the fall is by cuttings.
Breeding methods for girlish grapes
There are enough of them, you can choose the most convenient option. If multiply layering, then the number of plants increases well, root processes appear, which serve as the beginning of other plants.
The method of growing maiden grapes requires patience seeds, since it consists of certain actions.
The third type of reproduction is use of suckers... They can be easily removed from the soil and transplanted to another place.
The fourth way is not difficult - grafting... The spring or fall season is best suited for it. And material for planting can always be obtained, and this does not require financial costs.
All that will be necessary is to water the cuttings in a timely manner and protect them from sunlight during the day.
Rules for preparing cuttings
Having decided to plant cuttings in the fall, they should be prepared from spring or summerusing twigs with clearly visible leaves. You can prepare planting material from monochromatic shoots - they will be the healthiest.
Gardeners recommend using a little trick when choosing cuttings - when bent, they should crackle slightly.
Thick cuttings are not suitable for planting. Having cut off a suitable twig, it should be cleaned of the mustache and stepson's processes. Slices are made a couple of centimeters below the sheet.
The optimal cutting length is from twenty to thirty centimeters, it must have at least four formed buds.
Selection of cuttings
The material for the cultivation of maiden grapes can be prepared independently or purchased. When choosing grape seedlings, it is recommended to pay attention to their condition - there should be no mechanical damage on the cuttings.
Best of all to acquire well developed seedlings, without a lump of earth on the roots.
The plant does not have any special requirements for the soil composition, it grows almost everywhere. Only from the western direction, foliage of small size is noted, retaining its shade until the first frost. But if you decide to plant a girlish grape, try to make a place for it. southbound.
The soil is prepared in advance - it must have time to compact and absorb a sufficient amount of moisture. The earth must be dug to the depth fifty - seventy centimetersmixing the layers of soil with each other. After that, holes are prepared for landing.
If the place is heavy (black earth or clay), the bottom is covered with gravel, broken brick, phosphorus and river sand are added to the soil. For a sandy loam area, drainage is not arranged, but mineral components enriched with nitrogen will be required.
The best grapes will grow on a sandy area, which perfectly permeates air and water. But organic matter must be added to such soil:
Mineral compositions, which must include superphosphate, will not be superfluous in this case.
Planting and rooting
The size of the planting pit should be 50 by 50 centimeters... The depth can be the same, but here the size of the root system must be taken into account. The stalk is dug in and watered with four buckets of water so that the plant takes over faster.
Plant support not required... The grapes thrive on the hedge. With the help of tendrils, vines can climb even on a smooth surface.
But here it must be remembered that a sufficiently mature plant from its own weight is capable of falling to the ground. And if you do not want to lose a picturesque carpet of greenery, then you should consider the option of installing supporting elements.
Pre-prepared material should be to root... To do this, you can use one of the following methods:
- in water... The roots will give a stalk easily, but in the ground they will still die off and be replaced by permanent ones. This option is good if there is still time before planting in the place reserved for cuttings;
- in the ground... This refers to the planting of cuttings in the place intended for them. It is desirable that it has a separation from the rest of the site by a path or curb, so that it is possible to water the place abundantly. At first, growth will be slow, then it will increase when the roots go deep into the soil by fifty centimeters;
- in containers... The most practical option. The container must have a diameter equal to fifteen centimeters.
Pros and cons of propagating girlish grapes by cuttings
The advantages of this breeding method include the following:
- easy preparation of planting material with your own hands;
- the possibility of purchasing it;
- fast rooting seedlings;
- active growth green mass;
- planting cuttings can be done at any time, before the onset of late autumn.
As a disadvantage, one can indicate the need for a shelter for cuttings in hot weather, and regular watering.
Best time to breed
Autumn planting allows the plant to extend the growing season.
And if the temperature regime turns out to be favorable, then the seedling will begin to develop early. And you don't have to look for a place to store the cuttings, which is also important. The best time to plant is September October.
The "green hedge" will serve you for more than a dozen years, forming enough foliage to cover large areas. One vine grows in length up to four meters per year. This means that the formation of bushes should be dealt with immediately, so as not to start the plant.
For grapes, a minimal support is enough to begin to capture the space around it. You will only have to make adjustments by timely pruning the bushes.
The girlish grapes are also good because they can be propagated at any time of the year, except, of course, in winter. And yet, sharing their experience, gardeners recommend doing this in the fall.
Grapes planted in the fall and rooted before the onset of cold weather will actively grow in the spring even without the use of any fertilizers or growth stimulants. In 1.5 - 2 months it will grow so much that in summer you can enjoy not only the beautiful view of this ornamental plant, but also the shadow it produces. It is not necessary to expect such success from grapes planted in spring, since the young plant will spend its main forces not on growth and building up the green mass, but on rooting and adaptation. In addition, in the spring and summer, you will have to spend a lot of effort to protect the immature plant from pests, the scorching sun, etc. So the most suitable time to propagate maiden grapes in your home is autumn - September or early October.
Girlish grapes on the gazebo in autumn
What is this variety?
Five leaf maiden grapes
Maiden grape is a plant variety that closely resembles a vine. This type is used in landscape design. Decorative qualities are not possessed by flowers, but by the leaves of the plant themselves.
Wild grapes are not edible. The plant grows better in the shade, but if you plant it in the sun, it will be more spreading. This type of grape grows quickly, is very resistant to various diseases and pests, and is also easily susceptible to low temperatures.
We reveal the secrets of reproduction of girlish grapes by cuttings in the fall
The maiden grape belongs to the grape family.
This perennial shrub often resembles a tree liana.
In the summer, the leaves of the maiden grapes are constantly green, and in the fall, almost before the onset of frost, they become bright crimson with bright blue berries that grow on red stalks.
But not everyone knows how to reproduce it correctly.
The maiden grapes grow by 3 meters annually. The lianas can be up to 30 meters long. He has the ability to climb, without any problems, on any flat surface, be it a rock or a house.
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Maiden grapes produce a dense foliage. It does not require additional support, since the plant is attached to the wall thanks to its disc-shaped suction cups. This frost-hardy shrub easily tolerates frosts down to -24 degrees.
There are several ways to reproduce girlish grapes, but the simplest and easiest is propagation by cuttings. In this case, the seedlings take root almost always.
First you need to prepare the cuttings
For autumn planting, cuttings begin to be harvested and cut in spring or summer from twigs on which the leaves are clearly visible. Also, cuttings are harvested from shoots that are painted in the same color, they must be healthy.
Gardeners know a little secret, the cuttings should crackle a little when bent. Thick cuttings are also not suitable. The cut twig is cleaned from antennae and stepsons. Slices are made 2 cm below the leaf.
The cuttings should be about 20-30 cm long and have at least 4 mature buds.
Later twigs are placed in a glass of water before the roots appear. With the appearance of the roots, the grapes can be planted in a pre-prepared place.
It is also interesting to read about the treatment and prevention of grape diseases.
Selection of cuttings for planting
You can prepare cuttings for planting yourself, or you can buy them. When choosing a grape seedling, you need to pay attention to the presence or absence of mechanical damage, they should not be.
When choosing a grape variety, you should pay attention to the fact that some varieties with a female type of flower should only be planted near pollinators, otherwise there is no point in waiting for the harvest. The seedlings should be well developed.
It is better to buy girlish grapes in containers. You can not purchase grape seedlings with weak shoots and clods of earth on the root system.
Preparing the soil for planting
Maiden grapes, in fact, are considered not very demanding plants for the soil. And it can grow almost anywhere, on any side of the fence, like north, south, east or west. True, from the western and northern parts of the garden, the leaves grow small, and they do not change their color until the first frost appears.
But, nevertheless, the sunny side is considered the best place for growing grapes.
For good growth of grapes, careful soil preparation is required. You should start in advance, so that the earth is slightly compacted and saturated with moisture. The earth is dug up to a depth of 60-80 cm, while it is necessary move soil layers, that is, the upper layer is interchanged with the lower one.
After deep digging, they begin to dig planting holes.
Maiden grapes grow on any kind of soil. On heavy chernozems and clay soils, for good air permeability, broken brick and crushed stone are poured onto the bottom of the pit, and the top layer is mixed with river sand. This type of soil is recommended fertilize and phosphorus.
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Sandy loam soils are poor in humus, and they are also endowed with fewer nutrients, including nitrogen. Stone materials are not added, since this type of soil allows air to pass through well.
Sandy soils are considered the most favorable soils for planting and growing girls' grapes, they are very air-permeable, so to speak, endowed with aeration.
Sandy soils contain little humus, and before planting, they need additional application of organic fertilizers: peat, compost or humus. In addition to organic matter, mineral fertilizers are also applied, including superphosphate.
We proceed to landing
It is recommended to plant maiden grapes in the fall, since the autumn planting allows the grapes to increase the growing season, due to which, in turn, early development of plants occurs, but subject to favorable temperature conditions.
Planting in the fall is also good in that you do not need to look for a place to store grape seedlings. Autumn girlish grapes best planted in September or October, later not worth it, as the plant may not take root.
Maiden grapes are not planted near sewers, as falling leaves in the fall can clog the entire runoff. It can also be planted on the balcony; in dry weather, the grapes must be watered. Also, this variety needs protection from frost.
Grape seedlings that are too long can be planted obliquely, but the planting depth must be maintained.
Girlish grapes are not planted on plastered walls, since the plaster can fall off under the weight of the plant. The best place to plant it will be concrete and brick walls, wooden fences, garages, sheds, gazebos. Wooden walls will not rot under the leaves.
Care must be taken to ensure that the vine does not grow over a tiled or slate roof. Because, the roof covering can break under its weight.
Girlish grapes are best planted in a lighted area, because they loves a lot of light, but at the same time it is quite shade-tolerant, it can grow in partial shade. Drafts and cold winds are absolutely not suitable.
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It is better to plant grapes on cultivated soils. When planting it, you do not need to use any tricks or special agricultural techniques. But, the earth is necessarily dug up, and a hole must be prepared a few weeks before planting.
The standard dimensions of the planting pit are 50 cm in width and depth, but you should still pay attention to the size of the root system.
Drainage is done at the bottom of the pit, broken brick, sand, rubble are poured. The sand layer should be about 20 cm.
A plant planted in a hole prepared in this way does not need feeding for the first two years.
Then a soil mixture is poured into it, which consists of leafy earth, compost and sand, and the whole hole is filled up to the top. The root collar of the grapes should remain at ground level.
To find out the exact depth of planting grapes, use an ordinary stick, on which a mark of 40 cm should be made, and lowered into the depths of the pit. Grapes are planted on a small mound made in advance.
But, you need to take into account a small nuance. On the seedlings of maiden grapes, the buds are located on the left and right, it must be planted in the ground so that the buds are along the trellis in the same plane. This must be done so that over time it is easy to tie them up.
The planted grape stalk is dripped in and sprinkle with 4 buckets of water... Indeed, for the rapid interconnection of the root system with the soil, abundant watering is needed, and the plant will take over faster.
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Maiden grapes, to protect the root system from freezing, many gardeners recommend planting at a depth of more than 50 cm, and on sandy soils - more than 60 cm. Indeed, in fact, the bulk of the roots is located at a depth of up to 40 cm.
On the surface, the soil is more fertile, it warms up well, and the roots of the grapes develop best here. Watering takes less water, and when feeding, the amount of mineral fertilizer decreases.
Maiden grapes can be planted and not at great depth, only 40 cm.
The grapes are planted at a distance of 30 cm from the line of the row, so that the support does not interfere when it is sheltered. Long sleeves are formed. They make it possible to create a stock of perennial wood, you can avoid gaps. Long sleeves fold easily to the ground. Saplings of maiden grapes are planted at a distance of 50 centimeters from each other.
Care after landing
Taking care of a girl's grape is pretty easy. it infrequent watering in drought and trimming unnecessary weaves. But in order for the grapes to still grow lush and be a well-groomed handsome man, it needs more careful care and requires the creation of comfortable growing conditions.
In the summer, weeds are removed, which appear from time to time, loosen the ground and, when exposed, cover the roots with it. The trunk circle is mulched with peat, compost or humus. In the autumn, mulch is immediately buried in the soil.
During sleep, in spring, the grapes should be cut off the frozen ends of the branches, remove dried, damaged shoots, as well as those that have grown outside the border.
After planting, the seedlings of the girl's grapes grow very slowly, because the plant spends all its energy on the formation of the root system. Starting from the age of three, grapes grow up to almost 3 meters in one season. Shoots have antennae, because thanks to them, it is kept on any surface.
After landing, in the early years, form the skeleton of a grape bushso that it visually takes on the shape we need. The main shoots are cut with a garden pruner at a meter height. And the shoots that grow on the side are given the desired direction by tying them up to complete lignification.
After the formation of the skeleton in the girl's grapes, sanitary pruning is done annually, that is, weak and damaged shoots are cut off. They also remove those shoots that impede the quality growth of the crown.
Since the vine grows very quickly, you can not skip pruning... Otherwise, a dense weave of shoots may turn out, and it will be possible to bring them into a more natural look only using full pruning.
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Water the girl's grapes in moderation, only three or four times. Use one bucket of water (10 liters) for each bush. In the summer heat, they water more often. In June, the grapes need, in addition to watering, feeding. Nitroammofoska is introduced, and during the period of active growth, complex fertilizers are applied.
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How to propagate girlish grapes by cuttings
Cutting is considered a fast and productive way of growing wild grapes. Cut shoots are adapted to the local climate and soil composition, so the seedlings can easily grow the root mass.
In the spring
Cuttings are harvested with the awakening of the kidneys. For planting maiden grapes, lignified shoots of 2 years of age are used. Liana is cut into segments with 2-4 developed buds.
The breeding process of maiden grapes:
- In the selected area, holes are dug up to 20 cm deep.The interval between plants is 80-100 cm.
- If the soil composition is heavy, then a drainage layer of coarse materials is made at the bottom of the pit.
- The seedlings are dipped into the hole at an angle.
- They are sprinkled with soil and tamped.
- The planted plant is thoroughly watered.
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In summer, green cuttings are used for planting. The planting material is cut from the young shoots of the plant with a part of the old lignified stem. The summer cultivation process is similar to the reproduction of maiden grapes in spring.
[stextbox attention! In hot weather, it is important to monitor the moisture content of the soil and avoid drying out. [/ Stextbox]
Rooting method for cuttings
In order for a parthenocissus seedling to germinate, it is rooted. The cuttings are germinated in one of three ways:
- In water. The root system of wild grapes sprouted in liquid does not take root well in the soil. The rhizome dies off and is replaced by a new one, adapted to development in the ground. The propagation method is used if it is not possible to immediately plant a seedling in a permanent place.
- In the ground... The method involves planting the cuttings in the hole immediately after cutting. It is considered the easiest, but slowest way of propagation of girlish grapes. In the first year of development, there will be practically no changes in the aboveground part. The active growth phase will begin in the 2-3rd year, when the root system grows to 1 m.
- In a separate container... A method of propagation of girlish grapes by cuttings, allowing you to quickly get a viable seedling. The container is filled with a mixture of peat and sand, the workpiece is immersed in the soil mixture. The container is transferred to a cool place and watered regularly. A year later, the seedlings are removed from the container and planted on the site.
Video: Propagation of girlish grapes by cuttings
Maiden grape propagation technology in autumn
The most suitable methods for the autumn period are the propagation of Partenocissus by cuttings and seeds.
With regard to the technology of planting seeds, everything is quite simple: choose ripe berries, bury them at a shallow depth in a bright place, and when the cold begins to mulch (cover the top layer of the earth with needles, straw, sawdust or peat). Unfortunately, in the cold regions of the country, the fruits do not have time to ripen before the cold weather, and this venture is doomed to failure.
Cuttings - a more popular method due to its practicality and good results. The main task is to choose the right cuttings. A branch for cutting cuttings must fit according to several criteria:
- thickness no more than 0.5 cm in diameter
- lignified last year's escape
- no traces of mold, rot or other painful manifestations
- many formed green buds on the entire plane of the branch.
Gallery: girlish grapes (25 photos)
Features of growing maiden grapes (video)
How and when is the cuttings of maiden grapes carried out
Despite the fact that many argue that cuttings and planting can be carried out at any time of the year, autumn is a more suitable period. For example, in the summer, plants that are still weak will have to be hidden from the scorching sun all the time and watered very often to ensure sufficient moisture. In the spring, watering will also have to be increased and the grapes protected from pests.
The ideal time for planting in autumn is September or October, when it is still warm and sunny outside. Cuttings are best harvested in the summer, clearing the branch from the mustache and making slices lower than 2 cm from the leaf. Each cutting should be up to 30 cm long and have enough buds. Some gardeners believe that the ideal twig for cuttings should crack a little when bent.
Cutting and planting of maiden grapes can be carried out at any time of the year, autumn is a more suitable period
- For the appearance of roots, the cut cuttings must be placed in a glass of water in a sunny place and the contents must be changed periodically. Small roots will appear over time.
- After that, the cuttings can be safely planted in the ground.
IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW
This procedure is best done in late July and early August. However, the disadvantage is that roots formed in water almost completely die off in an earthen environment and, in fact, this is a useless activity that is suitable only if it is impossible to plant soon after grafting.
You can also greatly simplify your task by selecting cuttings in September and immediately planting them in the prepared soil, since the convergence of Parthenocissus is almost 100%. The only problem, if the planting takes place in a cold region, then the plant may not have time to reach the desired size before the first frost and will hurt.
Maiden grape cuttings are best harvested in summer.
In total, there are 3 options for rooting maiden grapes in the ground.
- The first is rooting in a permanent place, which must first be prepared and cleared. In this case, the shoots will grow very slowly and you will have to weed them carefully for about two years. But the advantage is that it will never need to be transplanted from place to place again.
- The second is planting sprouts on a draw bed, but in the spring the grapes will be very strongly intertwined with each other and it will be problematic to plant them in the main place.
- The third is rooting in individual pots. For this purpose, you need to take pots with a diameter of about 15 cm and grow maiden grapes in them for a whole year.
How to propagate girlish grapes by layering (video)
The step-by-step process of rooting in pots will look like this:
- Fill the pot with soil and ¼ sand.
- Immerse the stalk with a knot in the ground.
- Water thoroughly.
- Install a support and tie up the leaves.
- Put the containers in a shaded and windless place, water regularly, keeping moisture, for the winter you can dig a little and cover with sawdust or dry leaves.
- In winter, the pot should be covered with snow, otherwise it is better to cover it with a vegetable box.
- You can plant grapes after overwintering in April-May or after another year.
Sapling care is pretty simple. You need to follow the following guidelines:
- Loosen and weed the soil regularly in spring and autumn.
- Sprinkle bare roots with earth.
- Water 4-5 times a season, if it rains regularly, reduce the number of waterings.
- Fertilize twice: in spring and during active vegetation. Top dressing is carried out with complex fertilizer.
- Prune regularly, remove dry branches, excess vines and bunches.
- Tie up if necessary.
It is quite easy to breed girlish grapes on your site. It will become an excellent decorative element, as well as protect from dust, wind, sun or decorate the walls of buildings. Caring for him is simple, but it will look very impressive.