The elderberry plant (Sambucus) is a shrub and belongs to the genus of flowering plants of the adox family. However, before that, this plant was considered a representative of the honeysuckle family, and it was also isolated into a separate elder family. This genus unites about 40 species, some of which are considered decorative, and there are also medicinal ones, for example, red elderberry and black elderberry. In the wild, such a shrub can most often be found in regions with a subtropical and temperate climate of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as in Australia. Man learned about the existence of elderberry in ancient times. So, the ancient Greeks made musical instruments from the shoots of such a plant, and there is also a mention of it in the writings of Pliny.
Elderberry is most often represented by not very large trees or shrubs, but the genus also contains perennial herbaceous plants, for example, herbaceous elderberry. In the middle latitudes, only 13 elderberry species are grown. And the most popular among gardeners of these latitudes is the black elderberry, which will be described in great detail below.
Black elderberry is represented by not very large trees or shrubs, like most of the species in this genus. The plant can reach a height of 2–6 meters, in nature it prefers to grow in the undergrowth of coniferous and deciduous forests, in some cases it creates dense thickets. Branched shoots have a thin woody shell, while their white core is soft and porous. The color of young branches is green, it eventually changes to grayish-brown with many very small lentils. The length of large leaf plates reaches 10-30 centimeters. They are pinnate, they include several long-pointed oblong leaves opposite and short-petiolate. The diameter of large multi-flowered flat corymbose inflorescences is 0.25 m, they consist of fragrant, dirty yellow or creamy medium-sized (diameter 0.5-0.8 cm) flowers. Flowering begins in May or June. The fruit is a berry-like drupe of almost black color, its diameter is about 0.7 cm, the pulp is dark red, there are from 2 to 4 seeds. The beginning of fruiting occurs in August – September.
Elderberry is not only an ornamental plant, it also has medicinal properties.
Plant care: black elderberry. Types, landing, care // FORUMHOUSE
Planting elderberries in open ground
What time to plant
Planting an elderberry is quite simple, because this process is slightly different from planting other shrubs in open ground. Disembarkation can be done in spring and autumn. Experts recommend choosing those seedlings for planting that are 1 or 2 years old. Despite the fact that this plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, it cannot be grown in poor soil or in the shade, since this does not in the best way affect the decorative effect of the bush and its growth and development. For planting, you should choose an open sunny area located on the east or north side of the garden. Remember that an elderberry variety with variegated or colored foliage needs a lot of sunlight. Young shoots of elderberry have an unpleasant odor that even flies cannot tolerate, therefore such a plant is often planted near compost or cesspools and toilets.
It is recommended to plant such a shrub in sod-podzolic soil or wet loam with a pH of 6.0–6.5. If the soil is acidic, then a couple of years before planting the elderberry it is necessary to subject it to liming, for this purpose dolomite flour is added to it.
When planting a seedling of such a plant in spring, prepare the planting hole 4 weeks before planting. It should be borne in mind that the depth of the hole should be 0.8 m, and its width - 0.5 m. During the digging of the hole, the nutritious upper and lower poor soil layer will need to be thrown in different directions. In the event that you want to give the plant the shape of a tree, then find the center of the bottom of the hole and place a stake in it so long that it rises 50 centimeters above the soil surface after planting. If the elderberry will be cultivated as a shrub, then you do not need to make a support for it. The top layer of soil must be combined with 30 grams of potash fertilizers, 50 grams of phosphates, as well as 7-8 kilograms of humus. The resulting substrate must be mixed very well. 2/3 of this mixture must be poured into the pit.
During the planting of the seedling, it will be necessary to thoroughly loosen the top layer of the substrate poured into the pit. Then the seedling itself must be installed in the pit. Its root system should be covered with a lower layer of soil, and then the pit is filled to the top with the remaining soil mixture. In a planted plant, the root collar should rise several centimeters above the soil surface. After the soil in the near-stem circle is well compacted, water the plant with 1–1.5 buckets of water. When the liquid is completely absorbed and the soil settles, the root collar of the seedling should be flush with the soil surface. At the very end, if necessary, the elderberry is tied to a peg.
It is necessary to plant a seedling of this plant in the fall in the same way as in the spring. The preparation of the planting pit must be done in advance; the necessary mineral and organic fertilizers must be added to it. When planting a seedling, remember that after watering and settling the soil, its root collar must necessarily be at the same level with the soil surface.
Black elderberry. GardenOwn Hands
How to groom in spring
In March, there is a high probability of sunburn on the surface of the elderberry bark. The fact is that in the daytime, due to very bright sunlight, the crust is strongly heated, and at night it cools down sharply. To avoid the appearance of burns, it is enough to paint the base of the skeletal branches and the stem of the plant with lime. In the event that the bark of the plant was injured by rodents in winter, then such places must be disinfected with a sufficiently strong solution of potassium manganese, then they are treated with garden varnish.
Choose a warm enough sunny day and prune the elderberry. Then the bush should be sprayed in order to prevent diseases and pests with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or Nitrafen. Remove the insulating material and last year's fallen leaves from the surface of the trunk circle. If in the winter there was very little snow, and the spring turned out to be dry, then the plant will need water-charging irrigation.
How to care for the summer
When the plant fades, it will be necessary to carry out preventive treatment against powdery mildew and pests.
In the first summer weeks, the elderberry begins to form ovaries and grow intensively. In this regard, at this time, it is very important that the plants have enough water and nutrients. Remember that the surface of the trunk circle should be moist and loose all the time. If the plant was damaged by frost in winter, then in the spring it shows a rather rapid growth of root shoots. This growth should be removed as soon as it appears, since it can very quickly overtake the plant itself in growth. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of elderberry over the garden plot, it is necessary to step back 1.5 meters from the bush and dig in old slate sheets in a circle, burying them 50 centimeters into the soil.
In August, some elderberry varieties begin to ripen, so you should be ready to harvest. You should start preparing the plant for the winter period already in the last summer weeks. If there was a lot of rain in the summer, then this can cause the growth of secondary shoots. To stop this, it is necessary to remove the mulching layer from the surface of the trunk circle and pinch the tops of the growing stems.
In the fall, it is very important to prepare the elderberry for wintering. In September, the berries are picked, and then the plant is sanitized. In the last days of September, it is necessary to dig the soil in the trunk circle, during which fertilizers are applied. If there is little rain in the autumn, then the plant will need sub-winter watering. In the event that the planting of seedlings is only planned, then in the last days of September it is necessary to make a planting hole and add all the necessary fertilizers to it.
It is necessary to spray the bark of the elderberry and the surface of the trunk circle in order to destroy pests and pathogenic microorganisms in October. Large branches and trunks should be whitewashed with chalk mixed with wood glue and copper sulfate or freshly slaked lime. Thus, you will provide the plant with protection from spring burns and rodents. The surface of the trunk circle must be covered with a layer of humus, peat or dried foliage.
To protect the shrub from frost, it is necessary to throw a layer of freshly fallen snow under the plant.
Preventive treatment of bushes and the surface of the trunk circle from diseases and pests is carried out 2 times a year, namely: in the spring before the buds open and in the fall, when all the leaves fall off. For spraying, use a solution of Nitrafen (2-3%) or Bordeaux liquid (1%). You can replace these funds with a solution of copper sulfate (1%) or another preparation of a similar action. In spring, it is recommended to use a urea solution (7%) for spraying elderberry, this will not only destroy pathogens and pests, but also feed the plant with nitrogen, because it needs this substance at this time of the year.
How to water properly
If there is a lot of rain in the summer, then you do not need to water the elderberry. Also, the mulching layer on the surface of the trunk circle significantly reduces the number of irrigations, since it prevents the rapid evaporation of water from the soil. It is recommended to use rotted manure or compost as mulch. If there is a prolonged drought in the summer, then such a plant should be watered once every 7 days, while 1-1.5 buckets of water are poured under 1 bush. If there is a lot of rain in the summer, the elderberry can do without watering. Younger bushes will need more frequent watering. Remember that the soil in the trunk circle should never dry out. When the elderberry is watered or the rain has passed, it is necessary to loosen the surface of the trunk circle, while pulling out all the weeds.
If the soil on the site is saturated with nutrients, then the elderberry can do without dressing. If the soil is poor, then in spring and summer, experts advise to apply nitrogen-containing fertilizers to it, which will have a positive effect on the growth and development of the plant. Elderberry can also be fed with organic matter, while it is best to use chicken manure infusion and slurry for this. Also, for fertilizing, you can use a complex mineral fertilizer and urea. Remember that you cannot feed the plant in autumn.
Sanitary and shaping pruning should be done every year. Rejuvenating pruning is done once every 3 years, while all branches must be shortened to a height of 10 centimeters. Pruning is recommended when the plant has a dormant period. This time falls on the beginning of the spring period (before the swelling of the buds). In some cases, after harvesting the berries and the fall of all the foliage, sanitary pruning is performed in the autumn.
Pruning elderberry in spring
In a seedling planted in open ground, on the same day, the stems are shortened by 10 centimeters per strong external bud. The natural shape of the crown of such a plant is oval and quite neat, so the gardener will only have to timely remove those branches and shoots that grow in the wrong direction or inside the bush. You should also cut out any dried, weak, damaged by frost or disease stems. As soon as the root growth appears on the surface of the soil, it must be cut out immediately. Each year, ¼ of the old branches should be cut to the base of the plant. Do not forget that the places of the cuts must be processed with garden varnish.
Pruning elderberry in autumn
When harvesting is complete, inspect the plant. If there are a large number of injured branches, then sanitary pruning will be required. At the same time, together with the injured branches, you can cut out those that grow inside the bush and are damaged by the disease. But remember that autumn pruning is done only when necessary.
Elderberry can be propagated by seed, as well as vegetatively - by dividing the bush, cuttings and layering. Gardeners, as a rule, resort to vegetative propagation methods, because seedlings grown from seeds almost never retain either the varietal or species characteristics of the parent plant.
How to grow from seeds
In the autumn (in mid-October), you will need to extract seeds from ripe fruits, for this they are rubbed through a sieve. Sowing seeds is done in rows, between which a distance of 0.25 m should be kept. It is necessary to deepen the seeds into the soil by 20-30 centimeters. By the next autumn, the height of the grown seedlings will reach 0.5–0.6 m.
Elderberry propagation by cuttings
Harvesting of green cuttings is carried out in June or in the first days of July. The length of the cuttings should be from 10 to 12 centimeters and they should have 2 or 3 internodes and 1 pair of upper leaf plates, while only 2 paired segments should be left on their petiole. They are planted in a substrate consisting of peat and sand (1: 1). For rooting of cuttings, greenhouse conditions are needed, so they must be covered with a polyethylene bag on top. In order to increase the ability of cuttings to form roots by 2 or 3 times, it is necessary to dip the lower sections in a preparation that improves root formation immediately before planting in the substrate. In the first 4–6 days, the cuttings will need a very high air humidity, so the inner surface of the package will need to be systematically moistened from a finely dispersed spray bottle. At the same time, try to prevent water droplets from falling on the surface of the leaf plates, as this can cause rot on them. By the onset of the autumn period, the cuttings will have to take root, and they can be planted in open soil in a permanent place.
If there is a desire, then elderberry can be propagated with one-year-old lignified cuttings. They are harvested at the end of the growing season. In winter, they can be stored in the basement or buried in the snow. In spring, they are planted in nutritious loose soil in the garden. In this case, each of the cuttings on top should be covered with a transparent glass jar or a cut plastic bottle. Such a shelter is removed only after the rooting of the cuttings.
Black elderberry: propagation by cuttings - 7 summer cottages
Elderberry propagation by layering
When propagating by this method, 10 layers out of 10 almost always take root. To obtain a layer, you should choose a two or three-year-old lignified or young green shoot. It must be bent to the surface of the site and laid in the groove, which is made in advance. Secure the shoot in this position with a metal hook. Then the shoot is instilled in such a way that its top remains free.
It blows away to remember that the lignified layering at the base must be pulled over with wire. If you lay the shoots in the grooves in May or the first summer weeks, then the rooted layers can be cut off from the bush in the fall and planted in a permanent place.Green shoots are not tied with wire, and it will be possible to cut them off from the parent bush only the next year after they become lignified.
How to propagate by dividing a bush
Elderberry can be propagated by dividing the bush in autumn. To do this, you need to remove an adult large bush from the soil. It is divided into several equal parts. Cutting the root system of such a plant is quite difficult, so it is recommended to use a saw or an ax. All plots should have well-developed stems and roots. Places of cuts and cuts must be sprinkled with wood ash, then the divisions are seated in permanent places. If desired, they can be planted in large containers, and transplanted into the garden only next spring. With this method of reproduction, the gardener gets several large bushes at once.
Diseases and pests
Elderberry has a very high resistance to pests and diseases. Very rarely, green aphids can settle on a bush. To prevent this from happening, in the spring, they carry out a preventive treatment of the plant with Karbofos, while you must adhere to the instructions on the package.
Types and varieties of elderberry with photos and names
As mentioned above, the black elderberry is the most popular among mid-latitude gardeners. In addition to this plant, about 10 different species of elderberry are cultivated in such latitudes, which will be described below.
This plant is ornamental. Under natural conditions, it can be found in North America, while it prefers to grow in mountain pastures and along the banks of rivers and streams. In this species, the height of the trees does not exceed 15 meters. Sometimes there are shrubs with thin branches that have a red color at a young age. The color of the trunks is pale sandy. The leaf blades include from 5 to 7 coarsely serrate greenish-blue leaves, which reach about 15 centimeters in length. The diameter of the corymbose-shaped inflorescences is about 15 centimeters, they consist of fragrant cream-colored flowers. Flowering lasts approximately 20 days. The fruits have a spectacular appearance, their shape is spherical, and the color is bluish-black, because there is a bluish bloom on the surface of the berries. Winter hardiness in this species is below average.
Under natural conditions, this species can be found in the European part of Russia, in the Far East, in East Asia and in Western and Eastern Siberia. Such a plant prefers to grow in dark coniferous and mixed forests, while they can be found at an altitude of 2200 meters above sea level. This ornamental shrub reaches a height of 4 meters, it is distinguished by an average frost resistance.
In nature, this species can be found in Belarus, Ukraine, in the Caucasus and in the south of the European part of Russia, this elderberry prefers to grow along river banks and on rocky talus. The height of such a herbaceous plant reaches 150 centimeters, an unpleasant smell emanates from it, but it looks very impressive during flowering and fruiting. Fruits form shields at the tops of the stems. Remember that fresh fruits are poisonous because they contain hydrocyanic acid. In some cases, such plants are planted around the currant, because it can scare away the kidney mite and all harmful butterflies. But it is worth considering that if you later want to get rid of the elderberry, then it will be extremely difficult to do, since it has a thick creeping rhizome. Dried flowers of this type have a pleasant aroma, they are often used to pour apples during storage.
In the wild, this species is found in eastern North America, while it prefers to grow in moist nitrogen-rich soil. This elderberry is highly decorative and is often used for landscaping garden plots. The height of the bush is about 4 meters. The color of the stems is gray-yellow. The length of large leaf plates is about 0.3 m. Slightly convex umbellate inflorescences reach 0.25 m in diameter, they consist of small fragrant whitish-yellow flowers. Glossy berries of a globular shape and dark purple color can be eaten. The species has been cultivated since 1761. Externally, the bush is similar to the black elderberry, but this species is more suitable for growing in mid-latitudes. Decorative forms:
- maxim - this form is the most powerful of all;
- acutiloba ―slender bush has strongly dissected leaf plates;
- chlorocarp - the fruits are green, and the color of the foliage is greenish-yellow;
- aurea - foliage is green in summer, and rich yellow in autumn and spring.
Elderberry racemose or red
The homeland of this type is the mountains of Western Europe. This species is represented by a small tree, the height of which does not exceed 500 centimeters, and a deciduous shrub with a dense ovoid crown. The length of the pinnate leaf plates is about 16 centimeters, they are painted in a pale green color, they include from 5 to 7 leaves, pointed and elongated, on the edge of which there are sharp teeth. The diameter of the lush oblong inflorescences is about 60 mm, they consist of yellow-green flowers. The fruit is a small deep red berry. The branches and leaf plates of the plant have an unpleasant odor. This elderberry looks most impressive during fruiting. Cultivated since 1596. Decorative forms:
- Low... The bush is compact, dwarf.
- Thin-leaved... During the opening, the leaf plates are colored purple, they are cut into narrow segments, this is the reason for the graceful appearance of the bush.
- Purple... The color of the flowers is pink or purple.
- Yellowish... Yellow berries have orange barrels.
- Dissected... This type of elderberry racemose is the most popular among gardeners. Large leaf plates open very early, they consist of 2 or 3 pairs of finely dissected leaves.
- Plumose... During the opening, the serrated leaves are colored purple, they are cut almost to the middle. Popular varieties of this variety:
- Plumosa Aurea Shaded leaf plates are green in shade, and yellow in the light;
- Sutherland Gold - yellow leaf plates are even more dissected.
In the wild, this species can be found in the Kuril Islands, the Far East, Sakhalin and Japan. In Western Europe, it is cultivated as an ornamental plant. This species is represented by a spreading shrub or tree, reaching a height of 8 meters. Outwardly, the appearance is similar to the red elderberry, but the Zimbold elder is more powerful. The composition of the sheet plates includes 5–11 parts. The leaves are about 20 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide. Compared to the red elderberry, the inflorescences are larger, but less dense. Cultivated since 1907.
Black elderberry, the description of which is presented at the beginning of the article, also has several decorative forms:
- Guincho Purple... The height of the shrub is 200 cm. Young leaf plates are green, and more mature ones are purple-black, in autumn they have a reddish tint. The buds are painted in a deep pink color, the open white flowers have only a slight pinkish tint. The color of the stems is purple. It should be noted that when grown in the shade, the bush will be green all the time, so you should choose a well-lit place for planting it.
- Marginata... The shrub is about 250 cm high and grows rapidly. On the surface of the leaf plates there is a fragmentary edging of a creamy-silver color.
- Pulverulent... Such a plant is characterized by slow growth, it has very beautiful leaf plates, on the surface of which there are stripes, spots and strokes of white.
Most often, decorative forms are less resistant to frost, but they have a more spectacular appearance, they are planted in the garden as a tapeworm or in a group with other plants.
Properties of black elderberry: benefits and harms
The healing properties of black elderberry
The following beneficial substances can be found in elderberry inflorescences: valerian, acetic, coffee, malic and chlorogenic organic acids, tannins, semi-solid essential oil, choline, carotene (provitamin A), mucous and paraffin-like substances, sugars. The flowers of this plant have unique properties.
The fruits contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotene, malic acid, resin, glucose, fructose, amino acids and dyes.
Fresh black elderberry leaves contain carotene and ascorbic acid, essential oil, tannins, resinous substances, and dried leaves - provitamin A1.
The bark contains choline, essential oil and phytosterol.
An infusion is prepared from the dried fruits (1:10). It stimulates bile excretion, enhances intestinal motility and diuresis. With the flowers of this plant, tea is prepared, used for laryngitis, flu, bronchitis and neuralgia. It is also used to rinse the mouth as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Alternative medicine uses bark, foliage, elderberry fruits and flowers. Broths and infusions made from elderberry color are used as an antibacterial and diaphoretic agent, which is used to this day during the treatment of influenza, colds, tonsillitis and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
In order to prepare an infusion of black elderberry color, you need 1 tbsp. Combine hot water with 1 large spoon of dried flowers. The mixture is boiled over low heat for a quarter of an hour. The cooled infusion must be filtered and squeezed out. It is taken at 100 mg 2 or 3 times a day for gout, rheumatism or arthritis. The flowers are used to prepare a lotion that has a rejuvenating and tonic effect on the skin. 1 tbsp. freshly boiled water must be combined with 5 elderberry inflorescences, let the mixture brew for 24 hours. The strained lotion is stored in the refrigerator.
The foliage of such a plant has a sedative, laxative, astringent, diuretic and antipyretic effect. Steamed leaves are used externally for hemorrhoids, burns, diaper rash and boils. The foliage boiled in honey is used in the treatment of constipation.
A decoction made from the bark of such a plant is used during the treatment of gout, arthritis, rheumatism, skin and kidney diseases.
Elderberry is also used to make jelly, preserves and wines.
Black elderberry Medicinal properties
It should be remembered that the berries of the red elderberry are not suitable for eating, moreover, if you touch them with your hands, wash them thoroughly with detergent. If the juice of such fruits gets into cracks in the mucous membrane or wounds on the skin, then you need to consult a doctor for help as soon as possible.
Experts advise women to refrain from eating black elderberries during pregnancy, as well as to people with diabetes, colitis or chronic stomach diseases. Also, elderberry should not be used for individual intolerance and for Crohn's disease.
If you do not know what kind of elderberry is in front of you, then be sure to remember that, to a certain degree of ripeness, the fruits of black and red elderberries can be very similar.
Black elderberry "Madonna"
Large, upright shrub up to 3-4 m, grows very quickly. Annual growth is up to 2 m. Leaves are compound, with 5-7 leaves. On young shoots, the leaves are green with a bright yellow edging, later the edging becomes intense white.
Elderberry can be grown in a single-stemmed standard form, but it is usually cultivated as a large, rounded bush with numerous branches extending almost from the soil itself.
Usually black elderberry does not suffer from pests or diseases.
The timing of flowering and ripening of fruits
The flowers are white, in large, flat inflorescences. Blooms in June-July. Fruits are small, black berries.
Optimal growing conditions
Plants are placed in open or slightly shaded areas. It is not demanding on soils, although it prefers rich and moist soils. Tolerates watering with brackish water. Suitable for planting in urban environments. Hardiness is relatively, in cold winters it freezes strongly, however, thanks to a very fast growth rate, it is restored in a short time.
In the spring, shoots damaged by frost are removed. Cut back about a quarter of the old branches annually to stimulate new growth. Remove unnecessary root branches and cover wounds thickly. In dry spring and summer weather, water abundantly, mulch the area occupied by roots, rotted manure or compost.
If growth is weak or slow, apply a complex mineral fertilizer in the spring.
Breeding methods and planting rules
It is recommended to plant a one-two-year-old tree in mild weather in spring or autumn. Four weeks before planting, prepare the soil by destroying perennial weeds on an area of 1 square meter, apply a complex mineral fertilizer. Varietal elderberry is propagated by layering and cuttings. In order to get new bushes, it is necessary to cut and root the green cuttings of the plant in the summer.
Before this, it is imperative to treat the cuttings with a substance that stimulates root formation. But the best way to propagate an elderberry is to propagate with cuttings. In this case, new shoots are bent to the ground and laid in grooves. After a year, these shoots take root and can be separated from the mother plant.
When planting, you do not need to deepen the root collar of the seedling, it should be at ground level.
Suitable for single planting and for color compositions.
Types and varieties of elderberry for landscape design. Planting elderberries in the garden, care and reproduction of the plant
Elderberry in the garden
The genus Sambucus - Elderberry - according to the latest data, includes twenty seven species of woody and, less often, herbaceous plants. But in the minds of most of us, the word "elder" refers only to black and red elderberries.
This is quite understandable: these two species are the most widespread and are found almost everywhere in Europe and in most of Russia, and the black elderberry can be called a cosmopolitan species, because its current range covers all parts of the world except Antarctica.
For many, elderberry is, first of all, a medicinal and useful plant in everyday life. But both the red and black elderberry have aesthetic advantages that are still little disclosed by our gardeners.
Plants from the genus Sambucus have long been used as decorative plants. They were planted near houses, in parks and gardens. In addition to the decorative purpose, elderberry also had practical use as a honey plant.
In cultural plantings in the middle lane, it is advisable to grow the most frost-resistant and highly decorative elderberry species - b. red, b. black and b. Canadian. In addition, breeders have created several dozen interesting varieties of decorative elderberry, which can decorate the garden not only during flowering and fruiting, but during the entire growing season.
It is worth paying attention to cultivars with variegated or colored foliage, as well as varieties with a dissected openwork leaf blade. There are several dwarf elderberry varieties and varieties with an unusual crown shape.
When choosing a variety and type of elderberry for planting in the garden, take an interest in its frost resistance. It happens that a variety is inferior in this natural species, and different varieties of the same species show different resistance to frost. In thermophilic varieties of black elderberry, less often b.
Canadian, young shoots can freeze out, and edible berries do not ripen.
Decorative species and varieties of elderberry
The most hardy in our climate is the red elderberry - a species of European origin, which has become so familiar to us that many are perceived as a primordial Russian plant.
In botany, the red elderberry is also known as the common elderberry, or the common elder, - Sambucus racemosa. A shrub with a wide crown grows up to 2-4 meters in height and has beautiful feathery elongated-pointed leaves.
Paniculate inflorescences, collected from star-shaped flowers, light greenish at the beginning of flowering and white at its peak, by autumn are covered with red half-centimeter inedible berries.They are nevertheless eaten by birds, thereby contributing to the reproduction of the shrub.
For planting in the garden, varieties and forms of red elderberry are more often used, since they surpass the species plant in decorative qualities.
- Examples of varieties of red elderberry
- • Sutherland gold - a strongly dissected yellowish leaf blade, the leaf resembles a fern, almost does not suffer from sunburn • Golden Locks is a semi-dwarf variety, up to 0.7 m high, with strongly dissected bright yellow leaves that do not lose their attractiveness until autumn and do not fade in the sun • Ornata - a form with feathery leaf blades • Laciniata - a tent crown of a shrub made of amazingly graceful dissected leaves • Tenuifolia - leaves of an unusual threadlike shape • Flavescens - the variety stands out with yellow fruits • Plumosa aurea - leaf blades cut to the middle are painted in the golden yellow color from a distance the bush resembles a Japanese maple
- • Moerheimii - narrow, dissected leaves are purple when blooming.
- In the photo: black elderberry - Sambucus nigra
Compared to the red elderberry, the black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is a more thermophilic plant, and in middle latitudes it grows only in the form of a rounded shrub up to 3-4 meters high, while in the favorable climate of the Crimea or the Caucasus it can be a six-meter tree ...
To match the external dimensions on the plant, large, up to 20 centimeters, inflorescences of white fragrant flowers are formed, abundantly covering the branches. They last up to a month, and by autumn elegant black and shiny berries ripen from the flowers, capable of decorating the shrub in winter. The fruit of the black elderberry is edible and is often used in winemaking or medicinal tinctures.
Although black elderberry is very decorative in itself, its showy varieties are more often cultivated.
- • Black Lace - the variety was named “Black Lace” for its delicate dissected purple leaves and pink flowers • Variegata - variegated green-white leaves and pale white flowers • Gerda - dark purple-burgundy leaves • Madonna - variegated leaves bordered with wide yellow striped • Laciniata - highly dissected leaves, creating a light translucent crown • Fructu lutea - variety with golden creamy fruits, with a slight red blush • Pendula - elderberry with picturesque drooping branches and burgundy foliage • Witch's Broom - dwarf variety, whose height is 45 50 cm • Dwarf form - the smallest of the black elderberry varieties, its height is 30 - 35 cm • Black Beauty - the variety is similar to Black Lace - dark purple leaves and pink flowers, but differs from it in that the leaf blade is not dissected • Guincho Purple - the blossoming leaves of this variety are burgundy, they only turn green by the end of summer • Among the variegated varieties of black elderberry Albomarginata, Aureomarginata, Madon na, Bimble, Pulverulenta • Twisted leaves in the monstros form • Similar to oak leaves in the black elderberry latisecta • There are plants with a pyramidal crown - the Pyramidalis form • Cae Rhos Lligwy has ripe green fruits like gooseberries • Created spectacular large-fruited and fruitful varieties - Korsor, Adam Eldercerry and others.
- And this is not the whole list of black elderberry varieties that a gardener and landscape designer can choose.
The Canadian elder (Sambucus canadensis) is native to the east of the North American continent and is very reminiscent of the black elder. It differs from it in better frost resistance, although it can freeze a little in frosty winters, but after that it grows back with new shoots. Our height is no more than 3 meters.
It is difficult for a non-specialist to distinguish black elderberry from Canadian, and some plant taxonomists, for example, the Royal Horticultural Society, consider it a subspecies of black elderberry - Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis. However, according to The Plant List, black elderberry and Canadian elderberry are recognized as different species.
This picturesque plant has even more delightful varieties: • An interesting decorative form Maxima with a powerful bush and inflorescences up to 45 cm • The Canadian elderberry Chlorocarpa has green flowers and fruits • The Aurea variety has golden spring and autumn leaves, fruits of a dark cherry shade
• Exquisitely dissected leaves of the Canadian elderberry Acutiloba.
Other types of elderberry for landscaping
Not only red, canadian and black elderberries can decorate our gardens and parks. Siberian elder (Sambucus sibirica), b. fluffy (Sambucus pubens), b. herbaceous (Sambucus ebulus), Far Eastern species - Siebold elder (Sambucus sieboldiana) and Kamchatka (Sambucus kamtschatica / javanica) are successfully, although less often, also used in landscaping.
Elder Black "Madonna"
Black Elderberry "Madonna" / Sambucus nigra "Madonna" Large, upright shrub up to 3-4 m, grows very quickly. Annual growth is up to 2 m. Leaves are compound, with 5-7 leaves. On young shoots, the leaves are green with a bright yellow edging, later the edging becomes intense white. The flowers are white, in large, flat inflorescences. Blooms in June-July. The berries are black.
Plants are placed in open or slightly shaded areas. It is not demanding on soils, although it prefers rich and moist soils. Tolerates watering with brackish water. Suitable for planting in urban environments. Hardiness is relatively, in cold winters it freezes strongly, however, thanks to a very fast growth rate, it is restored in a short time.
In the spring, shoots damaged by frost are removed.
Not a deservedly rare plant. Suitable for single planting and for color compositions.
Elderberry black - in winter, vertical brown-gray shoots are decorative, in summer, large leaves that turn yellow in autumn. A tree or shrub reaching 6-8 m in height. Flowers are yellowish-white, fragrant, collected in umbrellas.
The small fruits are abundant, purple-black, edible, ripen in August-September and remain on the bushes for a long time. Leaves are odd-pinnate, light green, smell unpleasant. Prefers moist and fertile soils. A fast growing species that needs fertile soil and a sunny spot.
It tolerates shading and dry air, but needs soil moisture. It can freeze in winter. Feels good in city conditions. Spring pruning is recommended for better growth and flowering, grows back quickly after pruning.
Grown as a background for woody-kustrannik compositions, in places where it is necessary to quickly close unsightly places. Very decorative with black, shiny fruits that persist on the bushes and after the leaves fall. The glossy, lilac-black fruits are mostly canned.
Black elderberry grows either as a large bush or as a small tree, it is considered too vigorous for the garden. Young growths have an unpleasant odor and have been used in the past as a remedy for flies. Only the black elderberry is cultivated for its fruit, the red fruits of other elderberry species are inedible.
Read more: Cantaloupe melon: photo, description, size, cultivation features
Location: For normal growth, elderberry, although it is a very unpretentious plant, requires nutritious soil and light. In the shade, it develops poorly, quickly decays and never reaches a large size, and variegated forms lose their color.
Using: recommended as undergrowth, group and single plantings, to mask inconveniences. Most elderberry species have a characteristic unpleasant odor that repels flies and other insects, so they are traditionally planted near cesspools, compost heaps, and toilets.
Few have seen this plant in all its glory, usually it is cut off strongly so that it does not take up too much space, but under favorable conditions it turns into a small pretty tree. An interesting unusual property of elderberry racemes is to wash away dirt from hands.
Hands soiled after gardening are first carefully rubbed with ripe berries, then rinsed with clean water and only then washed with soap. Thus, stains from grass, dandelions and even black chokeberry and other dark berries are washed away.
In Poland, France and other European countries, black elderberry flowers are dipped in batter and fried like donuts.
Black elderberry is also included in the composition of berry teas that have appeared in our country. For example, the non-German mixture "Favorite Red Berry" consists of hibiscus, black elderberry, black currant, raisins and apple skins Landing features: Elderberry is quite shade-tolerant, but some species bloom better in sunny places.
Differs in rapid growth, gives root growth. The root collar should be at ground level after soil subsidence. Soil mix: Humus, sod land, peat and sand - 2: 2: 1: 1. When planting in a hole, add 100 g of phosphorus and 50 g of potassium. A drainage layer of 10-20 cm of rubble is required. The optimum acidity is pH 6.5-7.
5 Top dressing: In the spring, 100-120 g of nitroammofoska or kemira-universal are introduced for digging. You can fertilize with slurry 1:10, 0.5 buckets per bush. Watering: In dry summers, water once a week, 1.5-2 buckets per plant. Young plants in dry periods require more frequent and abundant watering.
Loosening: Only under young plantings to a depth of 15 cm. Mulching: Peat after planting, layer 5-7 cm. Cropping: All elderberry species need pruning. Deep pruning promotes plant rejuvenation. Elderberry stems age quickly, after 5-6 years a lot of dry dead branches appear and the bush loses its decorative effect. In such cases, the bushes are cut at the base and the young growth again gives a dense bush. Pests: Mite. Landing front sight. Moth Preparing for winter: Not required
- Links to the description of woody - ornamental plants
- Special prices for planting material for new landscape projects.
http://greenspravka.ru/buzina_madonna.html http://www.pro-rasteniya.ru/derevya-i-kustarniki/vidi-i-sorta-buzini-dlya-landshaftnogo-dizayna-posadka-buzini-v-sadu -uchod-i-razmnozhenie-rasteniya http://barvinoklend.ru/buzina-chernaya-madonna
Black elderberry Madonna (Sambucus nigra Madonna): use in landscape design, description and photo, planting and care, plant winter hardiness Link to the main publication Articles with the mention of the words: elderberry gooseberry leaf manure tincture chickpeas autumn area reproduction rice peat
Elderberry, decorative varieties, photos, growing conditions, application, care
Have elderberry sprawling landscape shape of the crown, so it is unlikely to be suitable for a regular garden
Elderberry can be grown as an ornamental plant. For this, a strong pruning is carried out annually - it stimulates the growth of young shoots, the leaves on which are larger and brighter than on the old ones.
Pruning can be done in two ways. The first is to plant the bush on a stump annually (in this case, it will spread out faster). The second is to prune on a stump every 3 years, in the intervals between them, trimming only last year's growths by 1-2 pairs of buds and removing the shoots at the base of the bush.
Elderberry growing conditions
The soil o prefers fertile
Lighting o sun, partial shade
Reproduction cuttings, layering, root suckers
Coloration c, depending on the variety - green, golden, purple, variegated
Watering abundant does not like locking
Winter hardiness in the red elderberry - high, in the black elderberry - medium in autumn yellowish-brown, orange, purple
Application of elderberry free growing hedge, specimen, mixborder
Seasonal decorativeness the whole growing season - shoots, leaves June-July - cream or pinkish flowers July-September - large fruits
If the composition asks for a golden shrub, it is a good idea to plant the black elderberry 'Aurea' - a very affordable and popular tall, fast-growing shrub. And take a look at the red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa).
On sale there are cultivars' Plumosa Aurea ', Goldenlocks' and' Sutherland Gold '. Red elderberry can be formed by a haircut in the form of a tree, similar to a palm-shaped maple, and grown in a Japanese garden - you get a wonderful snag-stylization.
You can limit your choice of purple-leaved and variegated shrubs to forms and varieties of black elderberry (S. nigra). Winter hardiness of varieties with purple foliage is slightly less than that of the original species, but the plant has the ability to quickly recover.
'Albovariegata', 'Aureovariegata', 'Marginata', 'Madonna', 'Pulverulenta'.
Eva '(' Black Lace ') with the narrowest and most split leaves' Gerda' ('Black Beauty') with very large bright pink umbrellas of 'Guincho Purple' flowers (leaves darken by mid-summer), 'Purpurea'.
- Lilies feel just fine if their upper part is warmed up in the sun, and the "legs" are in the shade, that is, the bulbs do not overheat. Plant low or medium-sized plants near them, for example, daylilies, hosts, bells, flax. Thanks to this joint planting, you will shade the lower part of the lilies, which means that the soil will not overheat and dry out.
- When planting oriental lilies, try to prevent the bulbs from drying out.
- Remember that Asiatic lilies do not like adding lime to the soil and quite often require replanting - once every two years.
Lilies are quite unpretentious in their care. During the flowering period, they need moderate watering. In hot dry weather, when there is almost no moisture in the ground, they must be watered abundantly. After flowering, watering can be stopped altogether.
Lilies are quite unpretentious in care
When cutting lilies, be sure to leave a large enough portion of the leafy stem. This will help further the development of the bulb. And try to make the cut itself obliquely so that rainwater can easily roll off without getting inside (excess moisture can cause rotting).
In autumn, it is better to cut the stems of lilies at a height of 8-18 cm from the ground. And just before wintering, it is useful to mulch the planting of lilies with peat.
For a successful wintering of lilies, they must be covered in time. Film, sawdust, dry leaves or spruce branches are the best for this. When covering plantings, make sure that the ground is completely dry. In spring, the shelter must be removed in time - preferably before the first sprouts appear.
The homeland of lilies is the mountainous regions of Asia, and in total there are over a hundred species of this plant in nature.
- deep yellow with red - 'Grand Cru'
- coffee, with scarlet tips - 'Lollypop'
- pink and white - 'Marlene', 'Ventoux', 'Marseille', 'Vermeer', 'Kentucky'
Terry Asian Lily 'Cocktail Twins'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- yellow - 'Kansas'
- yellow with red - 'Gitana'.
- raspberry white - 'Barbados'
- white with yellow - 'Time Out'
Oriental Lily 'Pink Mist'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- white with pink and yellow - 'Star Class'
- white with pink - 'Set Point'
- tricolor - 'Arena'.
- apricot - 'Bestseller'
- lemon - 'Aerobic'
- pink coffee - 'Royal Club'
LA hybrid 'Golden Tycoon'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko
- red - 'Royal Parade'
- apricot - 'Swing'.
More than 300 new varieties appear on the country's markets every year, the beauty of which can amaze anyone. The novelties are different not only in color of the flower, but also in shape and, of course, in name: bluish 'Blue Eyes', golden orange 'Ariosto', cherry 'Stargazer' - who can they leave indifferent?
Whom can they leave indifferent?
If we talk about hybrids in more detail, then they differ significantly from each other. For example, Dutch hybrids with a dense texture of inflorescences and petals are strong enough that they can be easily transported over any distance. “Asians” of the Russian selection are very fragile and airy, as evidenced by their romantic names: 'Night', 'Pink Haze', 'Virineya'.
You can talk about lilies endlessly. Every year the ranks of their admirers are replenished with new gardeners. For them, we have made a selection of interesting and useful materials about lilies:
- What do the mysterious ciphers in the names of lilies mean? Features of growing different hybrids
- In the kingdom of lilies: features of Asian, oriental and tubular hybrids
- 5 ways to breed lilies
Today, everyone can afford to plant lilies in their garden, even people with allergies. True, it is better for them to purchase odorless varieties: as a rule, there is a corresponding marking on the packaging of plants. And thanks to the unpretentiousness of the plants, growing lilies will not take much of your time.