Growing radish in greenhouses and open field
This valuable radish root. Part 1
Radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. Sativus, family Brassicaceae) in everyday life it is most often called a radish. The name of the plant comes from Latin "radix", which in translation means "root"... In our country, this vegetable became widespread relatively recently - only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Now it is one of the most revered vegetable crops.
Radish is one of the first fresh vegetables that appear on our table after a long winter, when the body requires a lot of vitamins. He broadly gives us everything that is necessary for health. The most valuable and tastiest thing in radishes is root crops - a kind of piggy bank where the plant stores nutrients. Young growing radishes are juicy and strong. This vegetable is early ripening and fruitful. During the season, 3-4 harvests of valuable root crops can be harvested from the same beds.
Biological features of radish
A brief description of. Radish is an annual plant. Seeds ripen during spring sowing in the Non-Black Earth Zone of the European part of Russia. The lower true leaves are lyre-shaped, the upper ones are dissected, with a large upper lobe and smaller lateral ones. The rosette of leaves is small, semi-spread. In many varieties of radish, immediately after the formation of cotyledons, which are large in size, the formation of a root crop begins. In the literature, you can often find the expression "molting phase" - this is the time of the beginning of thickening of the root crop, when the skin breaks in the lower part of the hypocotal knee.
Radish root crops of various shapes - from flat-round to long conical and fusiform. The color of the root crop is white, purple, red with various shades, pink-red, carmine, scarlet or red with a white tip. In radish, unlike other root plants, there is no stop in the growth of leaf mass and the associated increased growth of the root crop.
The economic suitability of root crops in early varieties occurs in 20-30 days, and in late-ripening ones - in 40-45 days after germination. After passing through the rosette phase, flowering branched stems are formed. In the period preceding the formation of the flower arrow, there is a sharp change in the structure of the root crop. From dense, glassy, it becomes loose, as if consisting of cotton wool. The amount of fiber in the root crop increases. From a sweet, juicy vegetable with a sharp, pleasant sensation of pungency, it becomes dry and tasteless.
The seed plant, depending on the variety, has a height of 40-180 cm. The flowers are large (up to 1.5 cm in diameter), white or pink. The fruit is a pod that does not open. Seeds are angular-rounded, pinkish-brown. The mass of 1000 seeds is 8-12 g. They remain viable for 4-5 years.
Requirements for growing conditions
Attitude to warmth... Being a cold-resistant plant, radish grows well at a temperature of +10 ... + 12 ° С, but for the formation of root crops the best temperature is +16 ... + 20 ° С. In open ground, radish shoots tolerate frosts down to -4 ° C, and adult plants - up to -6 ° C. High temperatures with a lack of moisture lead to premature shooting of plants, just like prolonged exposure to low temperatures. When grown in greenhouses, it should be borne in mind that radishes grow better at a temperature of + 20 ° С, then, before the first true leaf appears, the temperature should be reduced to +6 ... + 8 ° С to prevent stretching of the plants, after which it is raised again to optimal.
Attitude towards light. Radish is a light-loving plant. In conditions of insufficient lighting with poor ventilation in protected ground, a discrepancy between the weight of the leaves and the root crop is obtained (the weight of the tops is higher). In shaded areas and with strong thickening in crops, the plants stretch out. And in this case, the yield of root crops is reduced or they are not formed at all. Most novice gardeners do not succeed in good harvests due to thickened sowing or untimely thinning.
Radish produces a good root crop in a short 10-12 hour day. This is due to the fact that with a short day, plants cannot move to the next phase of their development, as a result of which the products of assimilation are sent to the root crop, being deposited in it, due to this, its continuous growth occurs. It should be borne in mind that the radish sown in early July forms large root crops with a diameter of up to 10-15 cm, which sometimes weigh 20 times more than the root crop of the same variety grown during spring sowing, without forming peduncles, since the plant uses the products of photosynthesis for accumulation of spare nutrients.
In the case of long daylight hours in radishes, the aerial part of plants continuously increases, and the growth of root crops decreases, since the plant directs the products of assimilation to the formation of reproductive organs. This is why radishes are often shot at very late spring and early summer planting times when the long days are coming.
Relation to moisture. Radish has a weak root system and therefore is picky about soil moisture. With a lack of moisture in the soil, it forms coarse, small, poorly edible roots. The quality of the hardened radish root crop cannot be corrected by watering. Radish reacts very much to changes in air humidity. It does not tolerate dry and hot weather, it becomes woody, tasteless, and flabby quickly. Even a slight drought affects not only the quality, but also the premature shooting of plants.
Attitude to soil nutrition. Radish is one of the earliest ripening vegetable crops. The best for it are loose neutral or slightly acidic sandy loam or loamy soils. Heavy cold soils with little organic matter are not suitable for radishes. Rapid growth and the formation of a good harvest are ensured on highly fertile soils. Plants absorb large amounts of nutrients in a short time. With a small removal of them from a unit area, radishes are distinguished by a high absorption rate of nutrients per unit of time. Therefore, it responds well to the introduction of easily digestible fertilizers. Radish is also responsive to soil fertility, like leafy green crops, but for the formation of root crops, especially on light sandy loam soils, it more needs increased doses of potash fertilizers. Freshly watered areas should not be allocated for the cultivation of radishes. On acidic soils, radish is strongly affected by keel.
Growing radish in greenhouses
For growing in spring in greenhouses, it is better to use early ripening varieties. The following varieties of radish can be recommended for this purpose: Deca, Heat, Quarta, Mark, Early Red, Rubin, Saksa, Teplichny, Teplichny Gribovsky, Holro.
To get an early harvest, it is advisable to grow radishes in hotbeds, greenhouses, under film shelters and in insulated soil. In film greenhouses, radishes are grown as a compactor or as an independent crop so that after it the area can be used for early cucumbers or tomatoes. In warm greenhouses and film greenhouses with guaranteed heating, seeds are sown in early to mid-March. In unheated greenhouses and under small-sized film shelters, seeds are sown on April 5-10; the harvest ripens on May 10-15 and is 4-5 kg / m².
Radish is one of the main crops in the autumn period of using greenhouses and greenhouses. For this, late-ripening varieties are sown on August 10-15, early-ripening ones - 10-15 days later. Before sowing, the seeds are calibrated. For beds in greenhouses, seeds with a diameter of at least 2.5 mm are used. Radishes are sown on leveled, well-moistened soil at the rate of 300-400 seeds (4-5 g) per 1 m². The distance between rows is 6-7 cm, between plants in a row there should be 4-5 cm.The depth of seeding is 1.5-2 cm.
Care consists in observing the required microclimate parameters. When growing radishes, the air temperature is maintained depending on the growth phase. Before the emergence of shoots, it is +15 ... + 20 ° С, with the beginning of the emergence of shoots, it is very important to reduce the temperature in a timely manner to +8 ... + 10 ° С in order to prevent stretching of the hypocotyl knee. After 5-7 days, with the onset of "molting", it is increased and until the end of cultivation is maintained at the level of +12 ... + 14 ° С in cloudy weather and +16 ... + 18 ° С in sunny weather, and at night + 8 ... + 10 ° C. Soil temperature should be +12 ... + 16 ° С. To remove excess heat, make intensive ventilation of greenhouses and greenhouses. Air humidity should be 65-70%. Until the mass emergence of seedlings, planting is not watered.
When the top layer of the soil dries up, it is sprayed with water. The soil is maintained in a moist, loose state, and moderate watering is needed before "molting", then more frequent. Soil moisture should be around 70%. An excess of fertilizer and moisture leads to the proliferation of leaves to the detriment of the formation of root crops, therefore, weak feeding is done only if necessary.
Most often, radish in protected ground is affected by black leg, keel and downy mildew. Sources of infection are contaminated soil, plant debris and seeds. Excessive humidity and insufficient ventilation, sudden changes in temperature, watering with cold water, increased acidity of the soil, and a lack of light increase the development of diseases. The main means of preserving the harvest are preventive measures (adherence to cultivation technology) and the cultivation of relatively resistant varieties (Zarya, Teplichny, Early Red).
Chemical protection of radish is unacceptable for sanitary and hygienic reasons. To scare away insects, you can use a folk remedy - ash.
Growing radish outdoors
Radish precursors can be any vegetable plants for which large doses of organic fertilizers were applied, except for cabbage. I want to warn you that you cannot use old greenhouse soil for radish after growing cabbage seedlings or a plot of cabbage, turnip, radish, turnip, because they are also struck by the keel.
Soil preparation. Unfavorable conditions during the period of emergence and formation of root crops lead to the formation of a large number of flowering plants. Thorough cutting of the soil is one of the conditions for high quality sowing. It must be remembered that you cannot sow radishes in untreated, excessively moist soil. When preparing the soil, special attention should be paid to the destruction of weeds, the accumulation of moisture and the loosening of the arable layer. It is necessary to start processing in the fall with digging to the entire depth of the arable layer. In early spring, the site is harrowed, and if the soil is compacted, then they dig it up to 2/3 of the depth of the autumn digging, so as not to turn out weed seeds and plant residues to the surface.
With late spring sowing, the soil is loosened several times, preventing weeds from sprouting. If the radish is grown by a second crop after the potato, then the soil is loosened and harrowed, and if after the green ones it is dug up, harrowed and immediately sown.
Fertilizers. On well-seasoned soils for the previous culture, radishes can be grown without fertilizers or only mineral fertilizers can be added at the rate of: 20-25 g of ammonium nitrate, 20-30 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium salt, or these fertilizers can be replaced with 30-40 g of nitrophoska or Kemir -universal for every square meter. Fertile soil without excess moisture and nitrogen fertilizers will provide good root crops.
Read the second part of the article: Radish varieties. Sowing radish. Radish care
candidate of agricultural sciences
Gardener tips: how to grow radishes outdoors
- Full photo
Features of soil preparation
Planting methods for radish
Features of radish care
Pests and diseases of radish
Radish is a fairly early ripening vegetable. It is often grown in greenhouses. But you can do this action in the open field. To do this, you need to know just a few simple rules and even an inexperienced gardener can handle the process.
It is not surprising to get lost among the countless varieties of radish. This diversity is dictated by the fact that the breeders were faced with the task of creating the most productive, marketable, resistant, early varieties. Now, among them, you need to choose the one that suits you.
Radish varieties are divided into those that can be grown in the open field or in the greenhouse, and some of them are famous for their resistance to shooting or early maturity.
The table below lists some of the common radish varieties and their characteristics. When choosing, remember that each of them may behave differently in different conditions. Therefore, sow several options at once and, based on the results, select those suitable for future plantings.
Planting radishes in open ground
What time to plant
Germination of radish seeds begins already at a temperature of 1 to 2 degrees. In order for the bushes to develop within normal limits, they need a temperature of 15 to 18 degrees, but if it is hotter, then with a lack of light (at this time of the year the daylight hours are still short), the tops will begin to actively grow, while the root crop will be rough, and its growth will stop completely ...
Sowing radishes is carried out immediately after the soil has thawed and warmed up well. As a rule, this time falls in mid-April, but in regions with a warm climate, early varieties can be sown in the last days of March.
Before you start sowing, you need to prepare the soil. A suitable area should be well lit (at least in the first half of the day), and also have reliable protection from gusts of wind. Light and loose soil, neutral or slightly acidic (pH 5.5-7.0), is best suited for growing. If the soil is excessively acidic, then it must be lime before sowing radish.
If there is such an opportunity, then it is recommended to sow radish in the area that will then be used for growing tomatoes. To do this, sowing can be done 1 time in 7 days until the twenties of May, while it will be possible to get a decent harvest of root crops, and at the same time prepare a plot for tomatoes. If the soil is heavy and cold or poor sandy loam, then before sowing such a culture it is necessary to dig it up with the introduction of humus (for 1 square meter of the site from 2 to 3 kilograms). It should be remembered that it is prohibited to use fresh manure.
Such a root vegetable grows well in those areas where cucumbers, beans, potatoes or tomatoes were previously grown. And the bad predecessor of this culture is turnip, radish, turnip, daikon, watercress, cabbage and horseradish. Experts advise sowing radishes every year in a new place, while you need to try so that each time it has predecessors from different families.
If the sowing of seeds will be carried out in the spring, then the preparation of the site must be done in the autumn. To do this, the site is digged to the depth of the shovel bayonet with the simultaneous introduction of humus or compost into the soil. Then, in the spring, right before sowing radish, the site will need to be dug to a depth of no more than 20 centimeters with the simultaneous introduction of potassium-phosphorus fertilizer into the soil.
Radish seeds are sown quite thickly, burying them into the soil by 20 mm; for this, grooves are made in advance and spilled with water. The row spacing should be between 15 and 20 centimeters. The grooves must be filled with loose soil, after which its surface is tamped. It is not necessary to water the crops; instead, it is recommended to cover the surface of the garden bed with a two-centimeter layer of humus or peat.
Before the first seedlings appear, at night (from 5 pm to morning) the surface of the garden bed must be covered with a film. Weather conditions have a great influence on the time of seedling emergence. If the weather is sunny and dry, then seed germination can begin on the third or fourth day after sowing. During the formation of the first true leaf plate, thinning of the plants should be carried out, while a distance of 30 to 50 mm should be left between them. If there is a desire, the sowing of seeds can be carried out by immediately placing them at a specified distance, thanks to this it will be possible to avoid thinning, because during the breakthrough of the seedlings, the roots of the remaining plants can be injured, as a result of which their development will deteriorate, which can lead to shooting.
If you take care of the radish correctly, then from the moment the seedlings appear until the harvest, it will take only 20 to 30 days.
Planting radishes before winter
Podzimny sowing of radish is carried out in the last weeks of autumn. Sowing of seeds begins after the first frost, and this time falls around the second half of November. Not all varieties of such a crop can be used for sowing before winter. However, the Yubileiny, Spartak, Mercado, Mayak and Carmen varieties are excellent for this, as they can germinate even at low temperatures.
The plot for winter sowing is prepared in the last summer weeks. To do this, you need to dig up the soil, into which you should add 1 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate and double superphosphate, as well as half a bucket of rotted compost or humus per 1 square meter. The prepared bed from above must be covered with a film, while at the edges it is fixed with bricks or stones.
Sowing seeds in autumn is carried out in dry soil, after planting the seeds, the surface of the site is covered with a layer of mulch (peat or dry soil). Then the surface is tamped, and if snow falls, then they throw in a bed. The advantage of such sowing is that in spring it will be possible to get an earlier harvest. As a rule, it is harvested half a month earlier than when sown in spring.
Growing radish on a personal plot
Planting radishes in open ground.
Radish is considered the earliest spring root vegetable, which is eaten as a standalone product or in the form of salads.
Consider some points on how to grow this root crop.
A distinctive feature of radish is its good frost resistance. In case of spring frosts on the ground, the crops will not be affected.
You can start sowing radish seeds in late March or early April, when the snow has completely melted. During this period, in order to get the earliest possible harvest, the beds should be covered with a film, creating greenhouse growing conditions.
If you are using seedlings, then seedlings of early radish varieties are planted outdoors in June, and mid-season varieties in July. A favorable time for planting late-ripening varieties is August-September, and then almost all year round it will be possible to harvest a good harvest of radishes.
Some professionals advise planting radishes for the winter. Winter crops give the earliest root crop.
Site selection and preparation of the garden
When growing radishes in the open field, the choice of a place for planting and preparation of the garden plays an important role.
It is best to grow radishes in nutritious, loose and well-dendrized soil.
It must be remembered that the optimal predecessors are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, legumes and peppers. It is not recommended to grow radishes in the same place for more than 2-3 years.
For planting radishes, it is ideal to use a plot of the garden that is well warmed up by the sun's rays, without drafts and wind. You should also avoid areas darkened by trees and shrubs.
The best period to prepare the garden for planting is autumn, when your garden will be cleared of plants. You will need to choose a place for the garden, dig up and feed the soil with organic matter.
In the spring, the bed should be dug up again, mineral fertilizers should be applied to the soil, which will contribute to a better yield of this vegetable crop.
First, make a shallow depth of the groove, keeping a distance of 15–20 cm between them, and moisten the soil well. The seeds can now be sown.
After planting the seeds, cover the grooves with soil and compact without watering. At night, the bed can be covered with foil.
In good weather conditions, seeds can germinate as early as 3-4 days after planting. When you see that the first leaves will appear on the seedlings, you can start thinning the beds.
Radish is one of the moisture-loving vegetable crops. But it is worth remembering that excess moisture can negatively affect the quality of the radish.
According to experts, radishes need to be watered daily, observing the watering rules and monitoring the soil moisture level. It is better to water early in the morning or late in the evening.
After each watering, the soil should be loosened, ensuring normal air circulation.
Before planting radishes, it is necessary to enrich the soil with mineral fertilizers in advance. It is best to use superphosphate and potassium salt to aid in proper root formation.
You need to be careful with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. With an excess of nitrogen, it will turn out to grow not root crops, but tops.
Yield indicators depend on the variety of the cultivated root crop, as well as the timing of planting and seed ripening.
Before planting, you need to sort out the seeds, sort them by size. Seeds 3 cm or more long will give a good harvest of large-sized root crops.