Marigold in landscape design - growing and care
Kaluzhnitsa is one of the brightest primroses, marking the beginning of the long-awaited spring. Due to their ease of care and resistance to frost, squat bushes with bright sunny flowers will adorn any artificial reservoir.
Marigold in nature
Bright flowers usually grow along the banks of water bodies.
Kaluzhnitsa is a perennial herb from the buttercup family. Most species have an erect fleshy stem and filamentous roots, collected in a bunch, but there are plants with a recumbent leafy stem. The leaves of the marigold are of a rich green hue, whole and shiny, can be reniform or heart-shaped with crenate edges. The flowers are mostly yellow shades of varying saturation, reaching a diameter of 4 to 8 cm. In the fruit - a many-leaf - there are up to ten seeds, randomly crumbling at the beginning of summer.
Kaluzhnitsa prefers well-moistened soil, therefore, the places of its widespread distribution are the banks of reservoirs, damp meadows and swamps. It was this feature that gave the basis for the name of the plant, which originated from the old Russian word kaluzha (puddle, swamp). It is found in the European part of Russia, the Far East, Siberia and certain regions of Central Asia.
Useful properties and contraindications
Due to its rich chemical composition, marigold has various properties:
- pain reliever;
- wound healing;
For medicinal purposes, the leaves of the plant and its juice are used, and also drugs are produced on their basis. At the same time, it is considered a poisonous plant, and self-medication can lead to a number of negative consequences (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, irritation of the mucous membranes). That is why it is strictly contraindicated to use it as a traditional medicine without consulting a doctor.
How it is used in landscape design: ideas and photos
Due to the rather early flowering (in April-May) and juicy foliage, which retains its decorative qualities throughout the summer period, landscape designers often use marigold to decorate park areas, gardens, flower beds and borders. But the most suitable place for this plant is the banks of artificial reservoirs: mini-ponds, streams, fountains, pools and decorative swamps.
The marigold, seated in baskets for water lilies, which float freely on the water surface, will look original and very beautiful. In order not to clog the water, it is imperative to place geotextiles on the bottom of the baskets, and then fill them with soil. For wintering, the plants are taken out and buried in the garden bed.
To make it look perfect as a decoration for the shores of a reservoir, it is important to follow several rules:
- place the marigold so that during the flowering period it is not shaded or obstructed by other plants;
- flowers can be planted in front of the marigold, which will continue the flowering relay after it;
- so that neighboring plants look beautiful and complement each other, it is important to select specimens, taking into account the similarity of characteristics and the approximate timing of flowering.
The best companions of the marigold are recognized as krasodnev, lungwort, alpine forget-me-not, snake mountaineer, ostrich, hosta, Chinese astilbe, thick-leaved incense.
Photo of marigold: plant species with a description
In total, there are about forty varieties of marigold in the world, but the most common are five main ones.
- Marsh marigold
The most popular species, which grows both in nature and in household plots in the form of a small bush, reaching a height of 45 cm. It has medium (up to 4.5 cm in diameter) flowers of a golden yellow color.
Marsh marigold - a common name for most varieties of marigold
Varieties of marsh marigold, which differ in shades and appearance of flowers, are:
- Terry, with yellow large flowers (up to 6 cm in diameter)
Terry marigold looks very impressive
- Bartier, dotted with brownish flowers;
Kaluzhnitsa Bartier is the only variety with such a bright color
- Alba is a bush with white flowers.
Kaluzhnitsa Alba will look good in a company with hosta and badan
- The marigold is a forest variety with thickened, powerful hollow stems, reaching 30 cm at the beginning of flowering, and by the end of seed ripening - up to 120 cm.After the slightly loose yellow buds have faded, the leaves become much larger, becoming the size of a plate.
Fistus marigold does not withstand the complete absence of drainage
- The marigold is multi-petaled. It grows in the form of a compact bush, which grows rather quickly, reaching up to 30 cm in height. Flowers of a yellow saturated shade can reach a diameter of 8 cm.
With constant watering, the marigold can grow in dry places.
- The marigold is webbed. Differs in thin leaves attached to a long (up to 30 cm) petiole. Blooms profusely, producing not very large golden-yellow buds.
Marigold flowers are used in Tibetan medicine recipes
- The marigold is floating. An aquatic plant whose rounded, whole-edged leaves float on the surface of the water. It blooms with small (up to 4 cm) whitish flowers.
Floating marigold is well suited for small artificial reservoirs
How to get a flower for reservoirs in your area
Before proceeding with planting marigold, it is necessary to choose the optimal place for it - a site with fertile and sufficiently moist soil, well lit or with a slight partial shade. The plant tolerates the winter period well even without shelter.
Landing in open ground
Kaluzhnitsa can be planted in early spring (in March) or in autumn (in September), in one of the following ways:
- Dividing the bush... The rhizome of the dug plant is divided into parts and planted in the ground at the same distance (about 30 cm). Then the soil is watered, and the plant is darkened from the south side until it takes root, after which the shelter is removed. As a rule, the marigold tolerates the transplant well. If the plant was planted in early spring, buds appear by April, blooming in May. Planted in the fall, it manages to get stronger before the onset of cold weather and winters well.
- Seeds... Before sowing, the seeds must be kept first at a temperature of 10 ° C (1 month), and then at 18–20 ° C (2 months). In this case, flowering begins only in the second or third year after planting;
- Cuttings... In the spring, the stem of the plant must be bent to the ground and fixed with a hook, slightly digging in the shoot. The soil is then watered and kept well hydrated at all times. A new plant with its own roots is formed by the fall, and next spring it can already be planted in a permanent place.
It is best to plant marigolds in the evening, when there is no longer an active sun, and better - in cloudy weather.
In fact, being next to a pond, the marigold itself will consume the required amount of moisture.
The marigold needs constantly moist soil, especially during the period of active growth. Therefore, you need to water it every time, as soon as the soil under the bush begins to dry out. Watering tends to be more frequent during summer. This will ensure the enlargement and juiciness of the leaves of the plant, which, even after the end of flowering, does not lose its decorative effect.
The marigold is fertilized using organic feeding in one of the following ways:
- in early spring, applying fertilizer to the surface with a shallow embedment;
- on the eve of winter, mulching the soil around the bush so that the spring melt water will deliver all the nutrients to the rhizome.
Care before and after flowering
For abundant flowering, the bushes need to be thinned and divided in time
This plant is so unpretentious that it practically does not require maintenance. The main activities involve the following:
- Before and during flowering, make sure that the soil is constantly moist. This is necessary so that the plant grows actively, and the flowers are bright and juicy;
- With the beginning of flowering, fertilize the plant with a mineral agent to stimulate the active formation and splendor of the buds;
- Cut off inflorescences immediately after flowering to ensure vigorous growth and beauty of green leaves;
- Divide and replant overgrown bushes.
Growing problems and their solution
Most often, gardeners are faced with two main problems:
- White or reddish bloom on the leaves, appearing when powdery mildew or rust occurs. This is often due to too high temperatures in the summer. Treating the leaves with Bordeaux liquid (a solution of copper sulfate in lime milk) will help to cope with the problem.
- Little or no flowering, which can be caused by drought. In this case, the plant should be transplanted to the dampest place, and if this is not possible, water often and abundantly until it regains strength and begins to grow and bloom. Another reason for the lack of flowering may be a lack of light, which also requires a plant transplant.
Due to the fact that marigold is an incredibly beautiful, unpretentious and frost-resistant plant, it has become a real favorite among gardeners. Competently combining and placing a variety of species, you can effortlessly decorate not only flower beds and borders, but also the shores of even small artificial reservoirs.
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The herbaceous perennial plant marigold (Caltha) is a member of the Buttercup family. This genus unites about 40 species. The scientific name of this genus comes from the Greek word, in translation it means "basket" or "bowl", this is due to the shape of the flower. The Russian name of this flower comes from the old Russian word "kaluha", which translates as "swamp" or "puddle". Popularly, this flower is also called a water snake and a paddling pool. The most popular species among gardeners is the marsh marigold. In the wild, this species can be found in Mongolia, in the mountains of the Indian subcontinent, in North America, Japan, and also practically throughout Europe, in addition to the southern regions.
Planting and caring for marigold
- Bloom: in April-May, sometimes it can bloom again in September.
- Landing: planting in the ground - in early spring or early autumn.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: rich and well hydrated.
- Watering: regular and sufficient: the soil on the site must be moist at all times.
- Top dressing: 2-3 times per season with complex mineral fertilizer.
- Reproduction: layering, dividing the bush, rarely seeds.
- Pests and diseases: the plant is very resistant.
- Properties: all parts of the marigold are poisonous.
Plant varieties with photos and descriptions
Modern breeders have been able to breed many wonderful varieties of marigold, which differ in the level of terry, colors and shapes.
To understand which variety to choose, you need to take a closer look at the photo and description of the varieties:
- Flore Pleno and Plena - the most common varieties, the advantage of which is the doubleness of the flower.
- Multiplex - large size of inflorescences, large foliage.
- Terry marigold - ideal for decorating the site in early spring.
- Simple marigold - an excellent solution for shallow waters and coastal areas.
- Fisty marigold - has large inflorescences and an almost meter-long stem.
- Alba - flowers are not double and white, which appear before foliage. The best habitat for this variety is a place with high humidity.
- Membranous marigold - grows well in places with a lack of moisture, has a compact size, but blooms profusely.
Possible growing problems
The marigold has good immunity from pests and diseases. The main pest for marigold, which is a real danger, is several species of flies. The eggs they lay can be found on the juiciest leaves. It is easy to deal with them, since there are a small number of them. Sometimes it is enough just to cut off the leaves on which there are eggs or already larvae.
The plant sheds buds and leaves
The only thing that can be encountered when growing is poor flowering. This is due to a lack of moisture or insufficient light. Increase watering and transfer (transplant) the flower to a sunnier place.
Attention! The buds can be discarded if reproduction by division occurred during the growing season. This is normal and will recover over time.
The pallor of the leaves or rust on them is a defeat by powdery mildew. It is enough to carry out the treatment with Bordeaux liquid. If the tips dry, then watering is insufficient or too hot climate.
Marsh marigold is a plant that, if grown correctly, can not only decorate any place on which it will be planted. She is still able to help with various diseases.