Creating a soil with a high humus content
Read the previous part. ← Working with land, creating the perfect plot
An oasis in a swamp land part 2
And on this trip I was especially struck by the diligence of the owners of the site. But a lot of work on creating a soil with a high humus content on a swampy area was not wasted in vain. The yields are the highest, all vegetables look healthy and clean.
The assortment of plants is such that you cannot list everything: potatoes, peppers, garlic, cucumbers, tomato, beets, carrots, celery, separate beds for green and spicy crops.
The special pride of the Romanov family is watermelons and melons... They grow in them both in greenhouses and in open ground. The fruits are large, and so that they do not rot in our climate, which is not quite suitable for melons and gourds, Boris Petrovich puts each watermelon on shelves in a greenhouse or on planks in an open melon.
It turns out that the roots of watermelons and melons are in the ground, their shoots have spread over all the trellises, and the fruits rest on the shelves, like in a whatnot. I have never seen such a picture.
The article How to grow cucumbers outdoors Boris Petrovich told how he makes a warm ridge (box) for cucumbers in the open field, and for melons he uses such boxes (a kind of warm ridge) in a greenhouse. Two plants grow in one box, which yield up to 40 melons. He also forms them in his own way. But this is already a topic for a separate conversation.
I was also struck by the harvest of melons in the open field, where Boris Petrovich used a box-ridge after cucumbers. The entire area around the box is covered with shoots, leaves - a solid carpet. And wherever you put your hand under the leaves - everywhere you will stumble upon a ripening melon! This is a must see! We could not find words to express our admiration for what we saw. And the tasting showed that the watermelons of the Romanovs will give odds to the famous southern fruits.
Of course, we could not pass by such a wealth of knowledge and experience - in January of this year, we invited the Romanovs to another lesson at the Usadebka club. There were many listeners. We watched the disc, filmed at the site of the Romanov family, and then we listened to the performance of Boris Petrovich. He talked about how he relates to soil: carefully, with an understanding of its condition and capabilities. He has a natural flair here. This is how it works on the ground. Without this philosophy and without such an approach to business, he would not have been able to obtain high yields of various crops, including southern, heat-loving ones.
founder of the Usadebka club
I was amazed at the abundance of crops on the Romanovs' plot - vegetable, fruit and ornamental, which they grow. Here and pharmacy garden, and an abundance of flowers, and remontant raspberry, and vegetables familiar to our sites - potatoes, onions, including leeks, zucchini, pumpkins, garlic and others.
But most of all I was shocked by the abundance of melons and watermelons. They were placed by the Romanovs not only competently, but also with great invention. For example, Boris Petrovich placed the fruits of melons and watermelons on the shelves inside the gazebo, which is used for relaxation and tea drinking, and the roots and shoots of these plants are outside the gazebo.
Their tomatoes grow in a large, spacious greenhouse. The harvest of fruits is excellent, there are more of them than leaves.
Using a special technology, they grow cucumbers in the open field, due to which not a lot of labor is spent on harvesting.
Ornamental pumpkins not only give a large harvest, but also, put on special arches and trellises, decorate the site, especially when the fruits begin to ripen.
Over the years of gardening, the couple have developed their own approach to working with the land. The labor costs here are colossal, truly titanic, but in the swamp they created a layer of humus of 40-50 cm! A huge amount of organic matter - this is plant residues from the site, wood chips, manure, hay - for more than 27 years, this approach has made it possible to turn the swampy soil almost into black soil. Now on the site of the Romanovs, almost everything grows that can grow not only in the North-West zone, but also in more southern regions.
The crop yield is very high. It is primarily determined by the created man-made soil and, undoubtedly, by the skill of the owners. Boris Petrovich, when growing greenhouse tomatoes, watermelons, melons, uses his own methods of formation, which are somewhat different from the generally accepted ones.
And this is true, because when a large amount of organic matter is used, the nutrition of the plant changes, and, therefore, a large load on it can be given. It allows tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, watermelons to grow a large leaf apparatus, which is able to feed a huge amount of fruits.
The hostess is especially proud of her decorative cultures. I was amazed number of summer workerswhich Galina Prokopyevna grows annually. Many flowers are not only a little widespread in our country, but simply garden exotic. Moreover, all plants are well-groomed, bloom profusely.
There is also an orchard on the plot. At the time when we were visiting the Romanovs (at the beginning of August), pear and remontant raspberries. The hostess is just looking at this culture. And I am sure that with such diligence this raspberry will give an excellent harvest.
The land on which the Romanovs have been working for more than two decades is located on a plot that was once given for vegetable gardens. And now the prospects here are very vague, at any time the city can take these lands for its needs. In one of the magazine articles, a proposal was made to create a training center on the basis of this site, where novice gardeners, farmers could see the results of real work on the land: how in a swamp it is possible to stably grow not only vegetables we are used to, but also southern fruits, even watermelons, melons and grapes, could get advice and advice, exchange experiences. It will be very disappointing if such an idea does not find support.
Our tour of the site ended with tea in the gazebo and tasting of tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers grown by the Romanov spouses. We also tried the Kolpinsky watermelon. It was fully ripe, juicy and sweet. And this is at the beginning of August!
We returned home with new knowledge, with good emotions from communicating with the owners. Low bow to these wonderful workers from the members of our club. I would like the experience and knowledge of these people to be in demand. Many physically cannot do this titanic work, but their advice and recommendations will help many gardeners to get excellent yields.
head of the club "Usadebka"
I was amazed on this trip by the height of the formation of tomatoes and the harvest that the Romanov family receives from them. I noticed: the leaves of the tomatoes are completely clean, large, it is clear that the nutrition of the plants is balanced.
The sight of watermelons and melons seemed to me absolutely fabulous on the site near Kolpino - large, beautiful, varied in shape and color. There were many of them, as in the southern melons. Where else near St. Petersburg can you see this?
And, of course, the hard work of these people is striking, who managed to create a real oasis in a swampy place, grow a wonderful garden and form a fertile vegetable garden.
Lyudmila Kayurova, member of the "Usadebka" club
Photo by E. Valentinov
Most popular varieties
Hokkaido pumpkin - the plant is grown in areas with a temperate climate. The flavors may resemble a nut. Pumpkin fruits are in high demand, most likely due to their long shelf life, size and taste. The vitamin base of such a pumpkin has a wide range of useful microelements. Plants can be grown both in the garden and at home.
Fig-leaved pumpkin - according to the botanical description, this plant is an annual type. In practice, fig-leaved pumpkin can grow for more than one year. Ficifalia leaves (second name) visually resemble fig leaves. Fig-leaved pumpkin has special large black seeds. The bloom is bright, the shape of the fruit is oval. By itself, the pumpkin is figurative, tasty and long-lasting. The stems resemble weaving ropes - hard and long (up to 25 meters). Only the figurative pumpkin has white or green fruits and characteristic long tines.
Pineapple pumpkin - has similar flowering and fruit with the Matilda pumpkin. The plant is fruitful, the whips of one planting can bear 5-7 fruits. The vitamin structure is very peculiar and includes up to 7 types of vitamins of different groups. The crust is smooth to the touch, the weight of the pumpkin reaches 4 kilograms.
Volga gray pumpkin - during storage of this variety, certain chemical processes occur inside the fruit, as a result of which starch is converted into sugar. As a result, the fruits are sweet and soft. It is used for making homemade desserts or as a filling for baking. The color is directly related to the name, shades of green are possible. The mass of one fruit is 6-9 kilograms. The crust has a smooth surface and various segments. It is recommended to plant the plant at an earth temperature of about 13 degrees, and collect at the end of summer. The presented variety has a high yield.
Medicinal pumpkin - the variety is appreciated for its taste and, according to many people, has medicinal properties. Grown in mild and warm climates (but resistant to cold). It is often used in the preparation of diets for people with gastrointestinal problems. It can act as a cosmetic product, as a component for masks, shampoos and others.
Sweet winter pumpkin - recommended for squeezing juice. Scourge plants are of medium length, and everything can reach 8 kilograms. The color of the fruit is gray, and the flesh is yellow or orange. Blooms closer to autumn, storage does not cause problems.
A guitar-type pumpkin is a type of butternut squash, reaching up to 1 meter in size. The pulp has a rich taste. The name "guitar" is associated with the shape of a pumpkin very much like a musical instrument. Summer residents appreciate the guitar variety for its long shelf life.
Chernozem differs significantly from humus and manure. Manure is a waste product of livestock and poultry farming and is a partially digested plant fiber with a high organic content. Manure that has rotted over several years under the influence of microorganisms and invertebrates (worms and insects) turns into humus, containing nutrients in a form more accessible to plants. Both manure and humus contain a very large amount of nitrogen and its compounds.
Peat is very close to chernozem in origin, which is also formed as a result of long-term decomposition of plant residues, but in other climatic conditions.
You can give some tips on how to distinguish black soil from other soils:
- has a rich black color
- leaves a greasy mark on the palm after compression due to the high humus content
- when wet, the consistency resembles clay and does not dry out for a long time, retaining moisture (unlike peat)
- has a coarse-grained structure.
It is rather difficult to acquire real chernozem with a quality certificate in the Moscow region, since its extraction is limited and there is a high probability of buying just dark soil. At best, you will be lucky to get a mixture of black soil with low-lying peat, which, with the right proportion, can even be a plus.
What you need to plant lilacs
If your site meets the above conditions, plant as many lilacs as you like. Only the size of the plot can limit you. For normal life, and, therefore, a decent appearance, plants require space. The distance between the lilac bushes should be at least one and a half meters, with the exception of planting like a hedge. The best time to plant lilacs is the end of August. It is important that it has time to take root before the ground freezes. In the spring, lilacs should be planted as early as possible, it is better to prepare the hole in the fall. For spring planting, all flower buds should be removed and watering is required.
The size of the pit for planting lilacs depends not so much on the size of the seedling itself, but on the quality of the soil - the better the soil, the smaller the pit should be, but at least 50x50 cm is recommended, even if the roots of the plant are very small. A good filling of the planting pit will provide the seedling with the necessary nutrition for several years in advance and will create good conditions for better survival. Add 2 buckets of compost or manure, superphosphate and potassium sulfate to the fertile layer of soil from the dug hole. It is also useful to add wood ash, which not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also contains important nutrients. If the soil on the site is heavy, it is necessary that there is not a very strong difference in the mechanical composition of the soil you prepare and the original one. Otherwise, water from rains and melting snow will collect in such a hole. When planting, make sure that all voids between the roots are filled with earth. Tie the standard lilac to the peg immediately.
Growing stevia at home
Stevia at home
When grown at home, the bush is unpretentious, if you follow the cultivation technology. Stevia care begins even before sowing seeds in pots.
1. In order to get a strong spreading shrub, stratify the seeds.
Stratification - cooling the seeds to temperatures from 0 ° C to + 3 ° C. When stratification of planting material, you stop all physiological processes that occur inside the seed. When the ambient temperature rises again to + 10 ° C or higher, the seed triggers a defense reaction and begins to germinate. Seed germination increases significantly.
2. Select the correct soil composition.
After stratification, stevia will grow on any soil, except for soil with a high salt content. However, for intensive development, it is better to sow stevia in a sandy loam substrate with a high content of humus or rotted mullein. The acidity of the soil should be neutral, approximately 6-7PH.
If you plant stevia in acidic soil, the bush will not develop well. Stevia's immunity will decrease, leading to fungal attack. Treat the stevia with fungicides to keep the plant from dying. Spray regularly every three days for two weeks. Better to use biologicals.
The most suitable substrate for growing stevia consists of high peat, vermicompost and sand in equal proportions. Peat has a high acidity, therefore, dolomite flour is added to the substrate to normalize the acid-base balance. It is not advisable to lime the substrate, since the roots of the plant can be burned.
The substrate should turn out to be loose and free-flowing so that the stevia grows a developed root system. Such soil allows water to pass well, it is saturated with nitrogen, so stevia seedlings will quickly grow.
3. Increase the daylight hours of young shoots. Use the correct backlight.
After the first shoots appear, pots with stevia are placed on the windowsill of the south or south-west window. Sunlight has a good effect on the growth of young shoots. Artificial lighting can be used to speed up the growth of stevia.
Incandescent lamps are not suitable for increasing daylight hours, as they emit a large amount of thermal energy. Moreover, the range of light waves emitted by them is very small. If you put the lamps too close to the young shoots, the stevia will get burned.
For backlighting, it is better to use blue and red diode lamps.It is the blue and red spectrum of light waves that plants need at the stage of active growth in order to form a large number of new shoots.
4. Shape the stevia into a bush.
After the stevia reaches a height of 5cm, you can start forming it. The lower leaves of the bush are removed, and the top is pinched so that the plant forms more lateral shoots.
The second formation is carried out two weeks after the first pruning. Remove all thin shoots of stevia, as well as those branches that are in contact with each other and grow inside the bush. They obscure other shoots and prevent them from growing. During the second pruning, stevia can be grafted: • choose a strong shoot with 8-12 leaves for reproduction The stalk can take root in the open field, only if the stevia is properly cared for. If you want roses to grow without problems and bloom magnificently, then seriously consider choosing a suitable place and preparing it for planting roses. It should be as open as possible to the sun (at least 5-6 hours) and well ventilated so that the leaves wet after rain dry quickly. Dark roses should not be planted in direct sunlight.
• cut off the part with four leafy buds
• plant the cutting in a separate planter or in open ground.
How to choose a place for planting roses and avoid mistakes
During the second pruning, stevia can be grafted:
• choose a strong shoot with 8-12 leaves for reproduction
The stalk can take root in the open field, only if the stevia is properly cared for.
If you want roses to grow without problems and bloom magnificently, then seriously consider choosing a suitable place and preparing it for planting roses.
It should be as open as possible to the sun (at least 5-6 hours) and well ventilated so that the leaves wet after rain dry quickly. Dark roses should not be planted in direct sunlight.
If the chosen place does not meet all favorable conditions for roses, this does not mean that they will die immediately. Most likely, they will have atypical growth for the variety, and the flowering is far from being as lush as expected.
Planting roses too densely contributes to the development of fungal diseases, since the leaves cannot dry out quickly. Problems also arise during prolonged drought, soil compaction, stagnant water, when the groundwater level is above 1.5 m, low humus content and lack of nutrients.
In addition, shade should be avoided, especially from trees with drooping branches, as well as fences and walls of outbuildings.
From a lack of light, the plants are depleted, flowering stops over time, and the shoots stretch up. Young rose seedlings should not be planted near mature plants.
Cold winds blow from the northern part of the garden, which can damage the rose bushes.
Blueberries: plant, root, lay the foundations for the harvest
Tall blueberries can hardly be called a new plant for Ukraine. Due to the amazing taste and the most valuable medicinal properties of berries, it increasingly takes its rightful place on our sites.
Of course, when choosing a seedling, it is worth purchasing healthy seedlings of varieties zoned for the north of Ukraine.
Excellent seedlings are available in our garden center Bluberry.
When picking up blueberries, you should buy 3-4 varieties of bushes with different ripening periods, so as to provide yourself with fresh berries from July to the end of September. Read about how to choose the right blueberry variety in article.
However, in order for the blueberry to meet the grower's expectations, its needs must be met. She has quite specific requirements for the place and conditions of landing.
If you are planning to plant blueberries, you need to consider:
- Illumination of the site
- Soil acidity
- Mechanical composition of soil
- Soil moisture and its drainage